Sociology 961: Seminar, Advanced Social Psychology
Topic: Self and Identity
|PROFESSOR: Jane Piliavin
||OFFICE HOURS: MW: 3:45-5:45 and by appointment
| Office: 2450 Social Science
Time and Room: 6101 Social Science, 11:00-1:00 Thursday.
This course will focus on theory and research on the self and identity,
from both a psychological and a sociological perspective. Most readings
will be articles, but there are two books you should buy:
- Goffman, Erving. 1959. The presentation of self in everyday life.
New York: Doubleday. (This is available everywhere, and the edition
is not important.)
- Baumeister, Roy F. (Ed.) 1999. The self in social psychology. Ann
Arbor, MI: Edwards Brother. (This one I've ordered from the bookstore.)
Evaluation: As with most graduate seminars, evaluation will be based
mainly on a substantial paper (at least 20 pages), in the area of the
course. This can be theoretical, empirical, or some combination of
the two. All students will meet with the professor face to face early
in the semester (weeks 3 and 4) to decide on a topic for their papers.
An abstract, outline of the paper, and list of major references and/or
data sources must be turned in to the professor in the 7th week of
class (October14). Conferences will be held in the following two weeks.
Beginning in the fourth week of class, students will select sessions
to lead, alone or in pairs. This will involve preparing questions for
discussion and circulating them by the class email list no later than
Monday of the week in question. This class leadership, other contributions
to class discussion, and attendance will also be factored in to the
Topics and readings:
|Classic conceptualizations of the self. Read:
Cooley, "The self as sentiment and reflection"
Mead, "The self as social structure"
Leary, “Editorial: What is the self? A plea for
James, "The self" in Baumeister, pp. 69-77.
|| Overview of the field.
Baumeister, Roy, F. 1999. The nature and structure of the self:
An overview. pp. 1-20. In Baumeister.
Gecas, Victor, and Peter J. Burke. 1995. "Self and Identity"
in Cook, Fine, and House (Eds.) Sociological perspectives
on social psychology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
- Howard, Judith. 2000. Social psychology of identities. Annual
Review of Sociology. 26:367-393.
|| Is there a self? Or is all the world
a stage and all the men and women merely players?
Goffman, E. Presentation of Self in Everyday Life.
Snyder,Mark, 1974. Self-monitoring of expressive behavior.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 58:22-32.
Tice, Dianne. 1999. Self-concept change and self-presentation:
The looking-glass self is also a magnifying glass. Pp. 195-217
|September 23 :
Next two weeks: Two theories of identity
1. Symbolic interaction and
role identity theory. Read:
Schrauger, J. Sidney, and Schoeneman, Thomas J. Symbolic interactionist
view of self-concept: Through the looking glass darkly. Baumeister,
Turner, Ralph H. 1978, The role and the person. American Journal
of Sociology. 84: 1-23. link
Stryker, Sheldon. 1980. Symbolic Interactionaism. Chapter 3.
Contemporary symbolic interactionism: A statement. Pp. 51-85.
Burke, Peter. 1991. Attitudes, behavior, and the self. In Howard,
J., & P. Callero, The self-society dynamic: Cognition, emotion,
and action. Pp. 189-208
Hewitt,J. P. 1989. Chapter 5. Personal and group identity.
Dilemmas of the American self. Philadelphia: Temple University
2. Identity theory and a comparison of the two theories. Read:
Tajfel, Henri, and Turner, J.C. 1979. An integrative theory
of intergroup conflict. Pp. 33-47 in W.G. Austin and S. Worchel
(Eds.) The social psychology of intergroup relations. Pacific Grove,
Stets, Jan E., and Burke, Peter J. 2000. Identity theory
and social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly.
Hogg, Michael A., Terry, Deborah J, and White, Katherine
M. 1995. A tale of two theories: A critical comparison of identity
theory with social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly.
58: 255-269. link
Consideration of specific identities (gender, race, class, sexuality)
Phinney, J. 1990 Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults:
Review of research. Psychological Bulletin. 108: 499-514.
Howard, Judith A. and Alamilla, Ramira. 2001. Gender identity.
In D. Vannoy (Ed.) Gender mosaics: Social perspectives. Los Angeles:
Gonsiorek, J., and Rudolph, J. 1991. Homosexual identity:
Coming out and other developmental events. Pp. 161-176 in J. Gonsiorek
and J. Weinrich (Eds.) Homosexuality: Research implications for
public policy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cornell, Stephen, and Douglas Hartmann. 1998. Chapter 4, A
constructionist approach, pp. 72-101, in Ethnicity and race: Making
identities in a changing world. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press
Rockquemore, Kerry Ann, and Brunsma, David L. Chapters 2
and 5 in Beyond black: Biracial identity in America. Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications.
Demo, David H., and Hughes, Michael. 1990. Socialization
and racial identity among black Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly,
Low, J. 1996. Negotiating identities, negotiating environments:
An interpretation of the experiences of students with disabilities.
Disability and Society. 11: 235-248. link
Self and culture, self and social structure, self and
Markus, Hazel Rose and Kitayama, Shinobu. 1991. Culture and
the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Baumeister,
Kashima, Yoshihisa, et al. 1995. Culture, gender, and self:
A perspective from individualism-collectivism research. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology. 69: 925-937. Electronic
Gecas, Viktor, and Schwalbe, M.L. 1983. Beyond the looking-glass
self: Social structure and efficacy-based self-esteem. Social
Psychology Quarterly. 46: 77-88. link
Cast, Alicia D., Stets, Jan E., and Burke, Peter J. 1999
Does the self conform to the views of others? Social Psychology
Quarterly, 62: 68-82.
Blumstein, Phillip. 1991. The production of selves in social
relationships. Pp. 305-322 in Howard, J., & P. Callero, The
self-society dynamic: Cognition, emotion, and action. Electronic
||Self and information processing: the psychological
Markus, Hazel. 1977. Self-schemata and processing information
about the self. Baumeister, pp. 123-138
Rogers,T.B. , Kuiper, N. A. , and Kirker, W. S. 1977. Self-reference
and the encoding of personal information. Baumeister, pp. 139-149
Higgins, E. Tory . 1987. Self-discrepancy: A theory relating
self and affect. Baumeister, pp. 150-176
Markus, Hazel, and Wurf, E. 1987. The dynamic self-concept:
A social psychological perspective. Annual Review of Psychology.
Markus, Hazel, and Smith, J. 1981. The influence of self-schemata
on the perception of others. pp. 233-262 in N. Cantor and J.F. Kihlstrom
(Eds.) Personality, cognition, and social interaction. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rogers, T.B. 1981. A model of the self as an aspect of the
human informaton processing system. Pp. 193-214 in N. Cantor and J.F.
Kihlstrom (Eds.) Personality, cognition, and social interaction. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
||Self-regulation: self-efficacy, control theory. Read:
Bandura, Albert. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory
of behavioral change, Baumeister, pp. 285-298
Carver, Charles S. and Scheier, Michael F. 1982. Control theory:
A useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical, and
health psychology. Baumeister, pp. 299-316
Baumeister, Roy F., Bratslavsky, Ellen, Muraven, Mark, and
Tice, Dianne M. 1998. Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited
resource? Baumeister, pp. 317-336
Karoly, P. 1993. Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view.
Annual Review of Psychology 44a; 23-52.
Higgins, E. Tory. 1996. The "self digest": Self-knowledge
serving self-regulatory functions. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology. 71: 1062-1-83. Electronic
1. What is it, where does it come from?
Wells, L. E., and Marwell, Gerald. 1976. Self-esteem: Definitions,
distinctions, and models. Pp. 59-76 in Self-esteem: Its conceptualization
and measurement. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Rosenberg, Morris. 1979. Beyond self-esteem. Pp. 260-289
in Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.
Tesser, A. and Campbell, J. 1983. Self-definition and self-evaluation
maintenance. Pp. 11-31 In J. Suls and A.G. Greenwald (Eds.) Psychological
perspectives on the self, Vol. 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Owens, Timothy J. and King, Adam B. Measuring self-esteem.
Pp. 56-84 in Owen, T.J., Stryker, S., and Goodman, N. (Eds.) Extending
self-esteem theory and research. Electronic
Campbell, Jennifer. 1990 . Self-esteem and clarity of the
self-concept. Baumeister, pp. 223-239
2. What does it DO? (If anything)
Leary, M., Tambor, E., Terdal, S., and Downs, D. Self-esteem
as an interpersonal monitor: The sociometer hypothesis. Pp. 87-104
Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Psyzczynski, T., Rosenblatt,
A., Burling, J., Lyon, D., Simon, L, and Pinet, E. Why do people
need self-esteem? Converging evidence that self-esteem serves an
anxiety-buffering function. Baumeister, pp. 105-118.
Baumeister, R.F., Smart, L., and Boden, J. Relation of threatened
egotism to violence and aggression: The dark side of high self-esteem.
Baumeister, pp. 240-280
Strategies for self-enhancement, motivation and self-
knowledge; Authenticity. Read:
Taylor, Shelley E., and Brown, Jonathon D. 1988. Illusion
and well-being: A social psychological perspecive on mental health.
Baumeister, pp. 43-66.
Steele, Claude. 1988. The psychology of self-affirmation:
Sustaining the integrity of the self. pp 372-390 in Baumeister.
Swann, W.B., Griffin, J., Predmore, S., and Gaines, B. 1987.
The cognitive-affective crossfire: When self-consistency confronts
self-enhancement. Pp. 391-401 in Baumeister.
Sedikides, Constantine. 1993. Assessment, enhancement, and
verification determinants of the self-evaluation process. pp. 402-426
Turner, Ralph. 1976. The real self: From institution to impulse
Pp. 78-84 in Baumeister.
Gecas, Viktor. 1994. "In Search of the Real Self: Problems
of Authenticity in Modern Times." Self, Collective Behavior
and Society: Essays Honoring the Contributions of Ralph Turner,
Eds. Gerald M. Platt and Chad Gordon. Greenwich: JAI Press.
Denzin, Norman K. 1994. "In Search of the Post-Modern
Self: The Babbitt Brothers in Las Vegas." In same collection.
Syntheses and new directions. Read:
Stryker, Sheldon. 1991. Exploring the relevance of social cognition for
the relationship of self and society: Linking the cognitive perspective and identity
theory. In Howard, J., & P. Callero, (Eds.) The self-society dynamic: Cognition,
emotion, and action. Pp. 19-42.
Gecas, Viktor. 1991. The self-concept as a basis for a theory of motivation.
In Howard, J., & P. Callero, The self-society dynamic: Cognition, emotion,
and action. Pp. 171-188.
Ervin, Laurie H. and Stryker, Sheldon. 2001. Theorizing the relationship
between self-esteem and identity. Pp. 29- 55 in Owen, T.J., Stryker, S., and
Goodman, N. Extending self-esteem theory and research. Electronic
Tesser, Abe. 1988 . Toward a self-evaluation maintenance
model of social behavior. Pp. 446-460 in Baumeister.
Student presentations and readings:
Bornstein: Resources for self construction in
emerging gay and lesbian families. Reading: Hequembourg,
Amy and Farrell, Michael P. 1999. Lesbian motherhood: Negotiating
and Society, 13,540-555. Please read the introduction and literature
review. Feel free to only
scan the rest.
Henderson: Cause-related marketing and the self. Reading (for
et al. 1997. Alternative reading (about cause-related marketing): Cone
Siegl: The relationship between self/identity and proenvironmental
* * * HAPPY THANKSGIVING * * *
December 2 :
Student presentations and discussion
Boxer. Birthright israel and identity. Reading: Saxe,
L., Kadushin, C., Kelner, S., Rosen, M.I., and Yereslove, E.
A mega-experiment in Jewish education: The impact of birthright
Waltham, MA: Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies, Brandeis University.
Read only pages 27-54.
Philip Brenner. Religious commitment, identity salience, and the
measurement of religiosity. Reading: Wimberley,
D.W. Religion and role-identity: a structural symbolic interactionist
conceptualization of religiosity. The Sociological Quarterly v. 30
(Spring 1989) p. 125-42
Emily Greenfield. Using MIDUS, I examine religious
social identity as a mediator of the associations between formal
and subjective well-being. Reading: George
L.K., Ellison C.G., & Larson
D.B. (2002). Explaining the relationships between religious involvement
and health. Psychological Inquiry, 3, 190-220.
Shane Sharp. Strict Religions and Identity
Reading: Iannaccone, L. R. (1994). Why strict churches are strong.
American Journal of Sociology, 99, 1180-1211.
Olga Godes. The impact of one's motivational self-concept
on achievement behavior in educational contexts. Reading: Spence,
J.T., & Helmreich, R.L. (1983). Achievement-related motives
and behaviors. In J.T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement
motives: Psychological and sociological approaches. San Francisco:
Sara Moorman. Self and identity in late adulthood. Reading: Swann, W.
B. Jr. (1987). Identity negotiation: Where two roads meet. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(6), 1038-1051.
Stern. Gang Rape and Athletes: What we can infer from theories
of self and identity. Reading: Sawyer,
Robin G. Rape myth acceptance among intercollegiate student athletes:
a preliminary examination.
December 9 :
Student presentations and discussion
Sun-Young Lee – the interaction of negative emotion
and self-efficacy and individuals’
motivation to seek health information. Reading:
Armitage, C.J., Conner, M., and Norman, P. (1999). Differential effects
of mood on information processing: evidence from the theories of
reasoned action and planned behavior. European Journal of Social
Psychology, 29, 419-433
Vera Tsenkova – Psychological influences on physical health and the self-system
as a mediator. Reading: Ryff, C. D., Singer, B., & Love, G. (2004). Positive
health: connecting well-being with biology. The Royal Society,
Hyunseo Hwang – News discrepancy perception and News distrust:
The Role of Self as Judgmental Anchor in Judgmental Process of
News Credibility. Vallone, Ross, and Lepper.1985. The hostile media
phenomenon:Biased perseption and perceptions of media bias in coverage
of the Beirut massacre. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 49:577-585
Jerralyn Moudry – The Parasocial Other: Implications of
Vicarious Relationships with Television Characters on Self and Identity
Formation. Reading: Haag, Laurie L. (Spring 1993).
Oprah Winfrey: The Construction of
Intimacy in the Talk Show Setting. Journal of Popular Culture, Vol. 26
Issue 4, p115-123.
Ye Sun – The third-person effect (the self-other discrepancy
in estimating media effect) and its psychological underpinnings.
Reading: Perloff, R. M. (1993). Third-person effect research 1983-1992:
A review and synthesis. International Journal of Public Opinion
Research, 5(2), 167-184. (Hard copies will be distributed in class.)
Cabell Gathman – self-presentation and
other-perception of gender in
online screennames. Reading: Sherry Turkle, "Cyberspace
Shazia Iftkhar – A comparison of theories of the self and identity across
disciplines - social psychology, political sociology and cultural studies -
with a focus on ethnicity. Readings:
1999. Cultural Studies and the Sociology of Culture (in Symposia;
Sociology and Border Disciplines: Opportunities and
Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 28, pp.
Sharon Hays. 2000. Constructing the Centrality of Culture - and
Deconstructing Sociology? (in Symposia; Charting Futures for Sociology:
Contemporary Sociology, Vol. 29, No. 4., pp. 594-602.
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