Sociology 971: Seminar on the Demography of Fertility, Families, and Households

Time: Thursday 3:30-5:25
Room: 6105 Social
Science Building
Instructor: Jim Raymo
Office: 4458 Social
Science Building
Tel: 262-2783
Office hours: 3-5 Tuesdays

In this seminar, we will read, discuss, and evaluate recent work on a range of substantive issues central to the social demography of fertility, families, and households.  We will place particular emphasis on developing a solid understanding of trends and associated explanations as well as individual-level correlates of a range of family behaviors.  Because the “demography of fertility, families, and households” encompasses a body of research that is far too vast to be covered completely in a single semester, we will not be able to read deeply on any one subject but will summarize the broader literature while reading representative work on a broad range of topics.  In the process of writing a paper, you will have the opportunity to read more deeply on a substantive area of interest.  A rough weekly schedule for the semester is as follows:





January 19



January 26

Overview – general trends, paradigms, theories


February 2

Marriage - trends and theories


February 9

Marriage markets, assortative mating


February 16



February 23



March 2

Remarriage and stepfamilies


March 9

Fertility in industrialized countries – general trends, theories, and explanations


March 16

Spring Break – no class


March 23

Fertility preferences and intentions, contraception, nonmarital childbearing


March 30



April 6

Fertility in developing countries – recent trends and theories


April 13

Work and family


April 20

Family structure – trends and implications for well-being


April 27

Intergenerational relations, caregiving, living arrangements


May 4

Presentation of papers
(Note that we will need to schedule an extra meeting)


We will not focus explicitly on methodological issues or techniques, much of which is covered in the demographic techniques sequence and advanced statistics courses.  I realize that most of you are currently taking advanced demographic methods and have not yet started to take other advanced methods courses.  We will, therefore, spend time discussing and clarifying relevant methodological issues as they arise.

Most of our readings come from a relatively limited range of sources – one recently published book and journal articles appearing primarily in Demography, Population Studies, Population and Development Review, and Journal of Marriage and Family.  The book by Casper and Bianchi provides long lists of relevant references and this syllabus provides 15 or more central works relevant to each week’s topic.

Most of the papers are available online through JSTOR, ProQuest, or Academic Search Elite - I assume that everybody is very familiar with locating journal articles online (especially with the new “find it” feature).  Papers not available from online databases are available as electronic reserves from the Social Science Library.  You can access these papers via MyUW portal – clicking on the link for Soc971 will take you directly to the reserved articles.  I am reasonably satisfied with the syllabus as it stands now, but please consider the reading list as subject to change.  Any changes I do make will leave time for adequate preparation (i.e., 2-3 weeks in advance). 

Except for the session on fertility in developing countries, readings focus almost exclusively on the contemporary U.S.  I have tried, however, to include at least one paper on another society in each week’s reading list.  I imagine that, as a group, we have strong interests in societies other than the U.S. so I encourage you to contribute insights from your own research or readings on other countries (I am sure that I will provide many examples from my own and other researchers’ work on Japan).  Also, because readings focus on relatively recent demographic trends, we will not be discussing concepts such as natural fertility or the demographic transition (although we will spend time thinking about the so-called second demographic transition).  I assume that you have a familiarity with historical demographic trends from Soc 663.

Requirements: This class will keep you busy.  Requirements are: (1) come to class prepared to discuss the required readings, (2) work with a classmate to collaboratively prepare a brief presentation or to lead discussion each week (see below for details) (3) write and present a research paper, (4) provide written feedback on a colleague’s research paper. 

This course has two main objectives – the first is to write a first draft of an empirical research paper that, with revision, could be submitted to a professional journal such as Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of Family Issues, or Demography.  The second is for everyone to develop a high level of comfort with recent research in the broad field of family demography.  Weekly meetings are structured with this second goal in mind.  The first hour of class will be comprised of three presentations of roughly 20 minutes each.  The first will provide an overview of trends and differentials in behavior of interest (e.g., marriage timing).  The second will provide an overview of the big questions and related theories (covering both the classic works and more recent developments).  The third will provide an overview of key issues related to data, measurement, and methods.  For each segment, 15 minutes will be devoted to presentation and 5 minutes to Q&A/discussion.  These presentations should, of course, emphasize content rather than form.  I will be available throughout the week to meet or discuss via email reading strategies and for preparing these presentations.  After a short break, we will reconvene for an extended discussion of four (or more) papers that everyone will have read carefully.  This discussion will be based on (but certainly not limited to) a list of reading questions circulated the previous week.  Because these questions should be prepared and distributed on Friday of the week prior to your session, you will need to do the reading for your sessions well ahead of time.  Discussion questions should address important substantive, theoretical, data, and methodological issues – I think that putting yourselves in the position of reviewer or referee would be a good way to write these questions.  I will use the final 10-15 minutes of class to summarize and address issues that were not covered.

As of 1/17, there are nine students enrolled for the class, making the weekly division of labor a bit complicated.  Each week, one group of two students will be responsible for preparing and leading one of the four class segments.  For example, two students will work together to prepare and present the 20 minute overview of trends and differentials.  Another two students will be responsible for reading ahead, producing a list of reading questions (I will also contribute some questions) one week in advance and leading the discussion section.  All presentations should have accompanying handouts or overheads.  We can discuss what the ninth student will do and I will send you a file listing everyone’s weekly responsibilities. 

We will spend the last session presenting and discussing your research papers.  As in most graduate seminars, the (admittedly nebulous) standard for papers is that they will eventually be submittable for review at a professional journal such as Demography, JMF, or JFI.  Because this is no easy task, I recommend that you get started on your papers as soon as possible.  Hopefully, most of you are already engaged in work that could form the basis of this paper.  This paper does not need to be something entirely new.  It can be a write-up of preliminary results of research that you are currently involved in (perhaps something you will be presenting at PAA?).  It can also be a substantially improved version of a paper that you have submitted for a previous class.  Regardless, I would like to meet with everybody some time during the first few weeks of the semester to discuss what you would like to work on.  I would like you to submit the paper in stages:

  1. Submit a research proposal by March 8 (just before Spring Break).
  2. Submit a brief description of preliminary results by April 6.
  3. Submit draft of paper to assigned reviewer by April 20.
  4. Present papers on May 4.
  5. Submit final version of papers on May 8.
  6. Submit reviews to author and to me on April 27.

I am hoping that we can run the presentation of papers something like a conference (maybe good practice for those of you presenting at PAA).  I think that we can allot a maximum of 15 minutes per person.  Roughly 12 minutes to present the paper and 3 minutes for Q&A and constructive feedback.  This final meeting will probably need to go at least 30 minutes beyond the scheduled time. 

Reading List (#required, *not available from electronic databases – on reserve)

Jan 26: Overview – General Trends, Paradigms, Theories

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Implications Wrap-up

#“Introduction” (Pp. xiii-xxxxv) in Casper and Bianchi (2002). and “Chapter 1: Changing Families in a Changing Society” (Pp. 1-38) in Casper and Bianchi (2002).

#Bumpass, Larry L. 1990. "What's Happening to the Family? Interactions Between Demographic and Institutional Change." Demography 27:483-498.

#McLanahan, Sara. 2004. "Diverging Destinies: How Children Fare Under the Second Demographic Transition." Demography 41:607-27.

#Popenoe, David. 1993. "American Family Decline, 1960-1990: A Review and Appraisal." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:527-555. (*and responses*)
*note that, in ProQuest, responses are included as separate files – be sure to print all four (“A Plea for Objective Assessment …” “Good Riddance …” “The Sky is Falling….” and “The National Family Wars.”

Astone, N. M.; Nathanson, C. A.; Schoen, R., and Kim, Y. J. 1999. “Family Demography, Social Theory, and Investment in Social Capital. Population and Development Review.” 25(1):1-31.

Booth, A., K. Carver, and D. A. Granger. 2000. "Biosocial Perspectives on the Family." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62(4):1018-34.

Cherlin, Andrew J. 1999. “Going to Extremes: Family Structure, Children’s Well-being, and Social Science.” Demography 36:421-428.

*Elder Jr., Glen H. 1977. "Family History and the Life Course." Journal of Family History 2:279-304.

*McLanahan, Sara and Lynne Casper. 1995. "Growing Diversity and Inequality in the American Family." Pp.1-45 in State of the Union: America in the 1990s vol.2, edited by R. Farley. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Rindfuss RR, Choe MK, Bumpass LL, Tsuya NO. 2004. “Social Networks and Family Change in Japan.” American Sociological Review 69(6):838-61

Seltzer, J. A., et al. 2005. ”Explaining Family Change and Variation: Challenges for Family Demographers.” Journal of Marriage and the Family. 67:908-925.

*Teachman, Jay D., Karen A. Polonko, and John Scanzoni. 1999. "Demography and Families." Pp.39-76 in Handbook of Marriage and the Family, Second Edition, edited by M. B. Sussman, S. K. Steinmetz, and G. W. Peterson. New York: Plenum Press.

Teachman, Jay D., Lucky M. Tedrow, and Kyle D. Crowder. 2000. "The Changing Demography of America's Families." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62:1234-46.

Thornton, Arland. 2001. "The Developmental Paradigm, Reading History Sideways, and Family Change." Demography 38:449-465.

Watkins, Susan C., Jane A. Menken, and John Bongaarts. 1987. "Demographic Foundations of Family Change." American Sociological Review 52:346-358.

Willis, Robert J. 1987. "What Have We Learned From the Economics of the Family?" American Economic Review 77:68-81.

Feb 2: Marriage - trends and theories

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#Carlson, M.; Mclanahan, S., and England, P. 2004. “Union Formation in Fragile Families.” Demography. 41:237-261.

#Oppenheimer, Valerie K., Matthijs Kalmijn, and Nelson Lim. 1997. "Men's Career Development and Marriage Timing During a Period of Rising Inequality." Demography 34:311-330.

#Sweeney, Megan M. 2002. "Two Decades of Family Change: The Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage." American Sociological Review 67:132-147.

#Waite, Linda J. 1995. "Does Marriage Matter?" Demography 32:483-507.

Becker, Gary S. 1973. "A Theory of Marriage: Part I." Journal of Political Economy 81:813-846.

Becker, Gary S. 1974. "A Theory of Marriage: Part II." Journal of Political Economy 82:S11-S26.

Bitler, M. P.; Gelbach, J. B.; Hoynes, H. W., and Zavodny, M. 2004. “The Impact of Welfare Reform on Marriage and Divorce.” Demography 41:213-236.

Blossfeld, Hans-Peter and Johannes Huinink. 1991. "Human Capital Investments or Norms of Role Transition? How Women's Schooling Affects the Process of Family Formation." American Journal of Sociology 97:143-168.

Bracher, Michael and Gigi Santow. 1998. "Economic Independence and Union Formation in Sweden." Population Studies 52:275-294.

Harknett, K. and Mclanahan, S. S. 2004. “Racial and Ethnic Differences in Marriage After the Birth of a Child.” American Sociological Review. 69:790-811.

Fitch, Catherine A. and Steven Ruggles. 2000. “Historical Trends in Marriage Timing: The United States 1850-1990.” Pp. 59-88 in Waite et al. eds. (2000).

Gibson-Davis CM, Edin K, Mclanahan S. 2005. High Hopes but Even Higher Expectations: the Retreat From Marriage Among Low-Income Couples. Journal of Marriage and the Family 67(5):1301-12

Goldstein, Joshua R. and Catherine T. Kenney. 2001. "Marriage Delayed or Marriage Forgone? New Cohort Forecasts of First Marriage for U.S. Women." American Sociological Review 66:506-519.

Harknett, K. and Gennetian, L. A. 2003. “How an Earnings Supplement Can Affect Union Formation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.” Demography 40:451-478.

Oppenheimer, Valerie K. 1988. "A Theory of Marriage Timing." American Journal of Sociology 94:563-591.

Oppenheimer, Valerie K. 1997. "Women's Employment and the Gains to Marriage: The Specialization and Trading Model of Marriage." Annual Review of Sociology 23:431-453.

*Oppenheimer, Valerie K. and Vivian Lew. 1995. "American Marriage Formation in the 1980s: How Important was Women’s Economic Independence?" Pp.105-138 in Gender and Family Change in Industrialized Countries, edited by K.O. Mason and A.-M. Jensen. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Raymo, J. M. and M. Iwasawa. 2005. "Marriage Market Mismatches inJapan: an Alternative View of the Relationship Between Women's Education and Marriage." American Sociological Review 70:801-22.

Retherford, Robert D., Naohiro Ogawa, and Rikiya Matsukura. 2001. "Late Marriage and Less Marriage in Japan." Population and Development Review 27:65-102.

Seefeldt Kristin S. and Pamela J. Smock. 2004. “Marriage on the Public Policy Agenda: What Do Policy Makers Need to Know from Research?” PSC Research Report No. 04-554, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan.

Thornton, Arland D. 1991. "Influence of the Marital History of Parents on the Marital and Cohabitational Experiences of Children." American Journal of Sociology 96:868-894.

Feb 9: Marriage Markets, Assortative Mating

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#Kalmijn, Matthiijs. 1991. "Status Homogamy in the United States." American Journal of Sociology 97:496-523.

#Raley, R. Kelly. 1996. "A Shortage of Marriageable Men? A Note on the Role of Cohabitation in Black-White Differences in Marriage Rates." American Sociological Review 61:973-983.

#Schwartz, C. R. and R. D. Mare. 2005. “Trends in Educational Assortative Marriage, from 1940 to 2003.” Demography 42:621-646.

#Smits, Jeroen, Wolf Ultee, and Jan Lammers. 1998. "Educational Homogamy in 65 Countries: An Explanation of Differences in Openness Using Country-Level Explanatory Variables." American Sociological Review 63:264-285. *please read in conjunction with following comments and rejoinder*

#Raymo, James M. and Yu Xie. 2000. "Temporal and Regional Variation in the Strength of Educational Homogamy (Comment on Smits, Ultee, and Lammers, ASR 1998)." American Sociological Review 65:773-781.

#Smits, J.; Ultee, W., and Lammers, J. 2000. “More or Less Educational Homogamy? A Test of Different Versions of Modernization Theory Using Cross-Temporal Evidence for 60 Countries.” American Sociological Review 65:781-788.

Blau, Peter M., Terry C. Blum, and Joseph E. Schwartz. 1982. "Heterogeneity and Intermarriage." American Sociological Review 47(1):45-62.

Brien, Michael J. 1997. "Racial Differences in Marriage and the Role of Marriage Markets." Journal of Human Resources 32:741-778.

Fossett, Mark A. and K. Jill Kiecolt. 1993. "Mate Availability and Family Structure Among African Americans in

U.S. Metropolitan Areas." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:288-302.

Goldman, Noreen, Charles F. Westoff, and Charles Hammerslough. 1984. "Demography of the Marriage Market in the

United States." Population Index 50:5-25.

Kalmijn, Matthiijs. 1991. "Shifting Boundaries: Trends in Religious and Educational Homogamy." American Sociological Review 56:786-800.

Kalmijn, Matthiijs. 1994. "Assortative Mating by Cultural and Economic Occupational Status." American Journal of Sociology 100:422-452.

Kalmijn, Matthijs. 1993. "Trends in Black/White Intermarriage." Social Forces 72:119-146.

Kalmijn, Matthijs. 1998. "Intermarriage and Homogamy: Causes, Patterns, Trends." Annual Review of Sociology 24:395-421.

Lewis, Susan K. and Valerie K. Oppenheimer. 2000. "Educational Assortative Mating Across Marriage Markets: Non-Hispanic Whites in theUnited States." Demography 37:29-40.

*Lichter, Daniel T., Robert N. Anderson, and Mark D. Hayward. 1995. "Marriage Markets and Marital Choice." Journal of Family Issues 16:412-431.

Lichter, Daniel T., Felicia B. LeClere, and Diane K. McLaughlin. 1991. "Local Marriage Markets and the Marital Behavior of Black and White Women." American Journal of Sociology 96:843-867.

Lichter, Daniel T., Diane K. McLaughlin, George Kephart, and David J. Landry. 1992. "Race and the Retreat from Marriage: A Shortage of Marriageable Men?" American Sociological Review 57:781-799.

Lloyd, Kim M. and Scott J. South. 1996. "Contextual Influences on Young Men's Transition to First Marriage." Social Forces 74:1097-1119.

Mare, Robert D. 1991. "Five Decades of Assortative Mating." American Sociological Review 56:15-32.

Monden, C. W. S. and Smits, J. 2005. “Ethnic Intermarriage in Times of Social Change: the Case of Latvia.” Demography 42:323-345.

Oropesa, R. S., Daniel T. Lichter, and Robert N. Anderson. 1994. "Marriage Markets and the Paradox of Mexican American Nuptiality." Journal of Marriage and the Family 56:889-907.

Qian, Zhenchao. 1997. "Breaking the Racial Barriers: Variations in Interracial Marriage Between 1980 and 1990." Demography 34:263-276.

Qian, Zhenchao. 1998. "Changes in Assortative Mating: The Impact of Age and Education, 1970-1990." Demography 35:279-92.

Qian, Zhenchao and Samuel Preston. 1993. "Changes in American Marriage: 1972-1987." American Sociological Review 58:482-495.

*Smits, J. 2003. “Social Closure Among the Higher Educated: Trends in Educational Homogamy in 55 Countries.” Social Science Research 32:251-277.

South, Scott J. 1991. "Sociodemographic Differentials in Mate Selection Preferences." Journal of Marriage and the Family 53:928-940.

Sweeney, M. M. and M. Cancian. 2004. "The Changing Importance of White Women's Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating." Journal of Marriage and the Family 66(4):1015-28. *please read in conjunction with following comments and rejoinder*

England, P. More Mercenary Mate Selection? Comment on Sweeney and Cancian (2004) and Press (2004). Journal of Marriage and the Family. 2004 Nov; 66(4):1034-1037.

Press, J. E. Cute Butts and Housework: a Gynocentric Theory of Assortative Mating. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 2004 Nov; 66(4):1029-1033.

Sweeney, M. M. and M. Cancian. 2004. "Placing Patterns of Economic Assortative Mating in Context: a Reply to Press (2004) and England (2004)." Journal of Marriage and the Family 66(4):1038-41.

Todd, P. M.; Billari, F. C., and Simao, J. 2005. “Aggregate Age-at-Marriage Patterns From Individual Mate-Search Heuristics.” Demography. 42:559-574.

*Wilson, William J. and Kathryn Neckerman. 1987. "Poverty and Family Structure." Pp.63-106 in The Truly Disadvantaged W.J. Wilson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Xu, Xiaohe and Martin K. Whyte. 1990. "Love Matches and Arranged Marriages: A Chinese Replication." Journal of Marriage and the Family 52:709-722.

February 16: Cohabitation

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#“Chapter 2: Cohabitation” Pp. 39-66 in Casper and Bianchi (2002).

#Brien, Michael J., Lee A. Lillard, and Linda J. Waite. 1999. "Interrelated Family-Building Behaviors: Cohabitation, Marriage, and Nonmarital Conception." Demography 36:535-551.

#Bumpass, Larry and Hsien-Hen Lu. 2000. "Trends in Cohabitation and Implications for Children's Family Contexts in the United States." Population Studies 54:29-41.

#Dush, C. M. K., C. L. Cohan, and P. R. Amato. 2003. "The Relationship Between Cohabitation and Marital Quality and Stability: Change Across Cohorts?" Journal of Marriage and the Family 65(3):539-49.

#Smock, Pamela J., Wendy D. Manning, and Meredith Porter. 2004. "Everything's There Except Money": How Economic Factors Shape the Decision to Marry Among Cohabiting Couples.” PSC Research Report No. 04-564, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan.

Axinn, William G. and Arland Thornton. 1993. "Mothers, Children, and Cohabitation: The Intergenerational Effects of Attitudes and Behavior." American Sociological Review 58:233-246.

Avellar, S. and P. J. Smock. 2005. "The Economic Consequences of the Dissolution of Cohabiting Unions." Journal of Marriage and the Family 67(2):315-27.

Bennett, Neil G., Ann K. Blanc, and David E. Bloom. 1988. "Commitment and the Modern Union: Assessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Subsequent Marital Stability." American Sociological Review 53:127-138.

*Booth, Alan and David Johnson. 1988. “Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Success.” Journal of Family Issues 9:255-272.

Brown, S. L. and A. Booth. 1996. "Cohabitation Versus Marriage: a Comparison of Relationship Quality." Journal of Marriage and the Family 58(3):668-78.

Bumpass, Larry L. and R. Kelly Raley. 1995. "Redefining Single-Parent Families: Cohabitation and Changing Family Reality." Demography 32:97-109.

Bumpass, Larry L., James A. Sweet, and Andrew Cherlin. 1991. "The Role of Cohabitation in Declining Rates of Marriage." Journal of Marriage and the Family 53:913-927.

Casper, Lynne M. and Philip N. Cohen. 2000. "How Does POSSLQ Measure Up? Historical Estimates of Cohabitation." Demography 37:237-245.

Clarkberg, Marin, Ross M. Stolzenberg, and Linda J. Waite. 1995. "Attitudes, Values, and Entrance into Cohabitational versus Marital Unions." Social Forces 74:609-634.

Lillard, Lee A., Michael J. Brien, and Linda J. Waite. 1995. "Premarital Cohabitation and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: A Matter of Self-Selection?" Demography 32:437-457.

Manning, Wendy D. 1995. "Cohabitation, Marriage, and Entry into Motherhood." Journal of Marriage and the Family 57:191-200.

Manning, Wendy D. and Pamela J. Smock. 1995. "Why Marry? Race and the Transition to Marriage Among Cohabitors." Demography 32:509-520.

Rindfuss, Ronald R. and Audrey Van den Heuvel. 1990. "Cohabitation: A Precursor to Marriage or an Alternative to Being Single?" Population and Development Review 16:703-726.

Schoen, Robert. 1992. "First Unions and the Stability of First Marriages." Journal of Marriage and the Family 54:281-84.

Smock, Pamela J. 2000. "Cohabitation in the United States." Annual Review of Sociology 26:

Smock, Pamela and Wendy D. Manning. 1997. "Cohabiting Partners Economic Circumstances and Marriage." Demography 34:331-342.

Smock, Pamela J. and Wendy D. Manning 2004. Living Together Unmarried in the United States: Demographic Perspectives and Implications for Family Policy PSC Research Report No. 04-555, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan.

Thomson, Elizabeth and Ugo Collela. 1992. "Cohabitation and Marital Stability: Quality or Commitment?" Journal of Marriage and the Family 54:259-267.

Thornton, Arland D., William G. Axinn, and Jay D. Teachman. 1995. "The Influence of School Enrollment and Accumulation on Cohabitation and Marriage in Early Adulthood." American Sociological Review 60:762-774.

Wu, Zheng and Pollard Michael S. 2000. "Economic Circumstances and the Stability of Nonmarital Cohabitation." Journal of Family Issues 21:303-328.

Xie, Yu, James M. Raymo, Kimberly Goyette, and Arland Thornton. 2003. “Economic Potential and Entry into Marriage and Cohabitation.” Demography 40:351-367.

February 23: Divorce

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#Goldstein, Joshua R. 1999. "The Leveling of Divorce in the United States." Demography 36:409-414.

#Sayer, Liana C. and Suzanne M. Bianchi. 2000. "Women's Economic Independence and the Probability of Divorce." Journal of Family Issues 21:906-943.

#Sigle-Rushton, W., J. Hobcraft, and K. Kiernan. 2005. "Parental Divorce and Subsequent Disadvantage: a Cross-Cohort Comparison." Demography 42(3):427-46.

#Smock, P. J. 1994. "Gender and the Short-Run Economic Consequences of Marital Disruption." Social Forces 73(1):243-62.

Amato, Paul R. and Juliana M. Sobolewski. 2001. "The Effects of Divorce and Marital Discord on Adult Children's Psychological Well-Being." American Sociological Review 66:900-921.

Amato, Paul R. and Danelle D. DeBoer. 2001. "The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations: Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?" Journal of Marriage and the Family 63:1038-1051.

Amato, P. R. The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family. 2000 Nov; 62(4):1269-1287.

Amato, Paul R. 1996. "Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce." Journal of Marriage and the Family 58:628-640.

Amato, Paul R. and Alan Booth. 1996. "A Prospective Study of Divorce and Parent-Child Relationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family 58:356-365.

Andersson, Gunnar. 2003. "Dissolution of Unions in Europe: A Comparative Overview." MPDIR Working Papers 2003-004, Max-Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany. (

Axinn, William G. and Arland Thornton. 1992. "The Relationship between Cohabitation and Divorce: Selectivity or Causal Relationship." Demography 29:357-374.

Axinn, William G. and Arland Thornton. 1996. "The Influence of Parents' Marital Dissolutions on Children's Attitudes Toward Family Formation." Demography 33:66-81.

Becker, Gary S., Elisabeth M. Landes, and Robert T. Michael. 1977. "An Economic Analysis of Marital Instability." Journal of Political Economy 85:1141-1187.

Booth, Alan and Paul R. Amato. 2001. "Parental Predivorce Relations and Offspring Postdivorce Well-Being." Journal of Marriage and the Family 63:197-212.

Cherlin, A. J., K. E. Kiernan, and P. L. Chaselansdale. 1995. "Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood." Demography 32(3):299-318.

Furstenberg, F. F. 1990. "Divorce and the American Family." Annual Review of Sociology 16:379-403.

Furstenberg, F. F., S. D. Hoffman, and L. Shrestha. 1995. "The Effect of Divorce on Intergenerational Transfers - New Evidence." Demography 32(3):319-33.

Heaton, T. B. 2002. "Factors Contributing to Increasing Marital Stability in the United States." Journal of Family Issues 23(3):392-409.

Holden, K. C. and P. J. Smock. 1991. "The Economic Costs of Marital Dissolution - Why Do Women Bear a Disproportionate Cost." Annual Review of Sociology 17:51-78.

Lillard, Lee A., and Linda J. Waite. 1993. A Joint Model of Marital Childbearing and Marital Disruption.” Demography 30:653-681.

Phillips, J. A. and M. M. Sweeney. 2005. "Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Disruption Among White, Black, and Mexican American Women." Journal of Marriage and the Family 67(2):296-314.

Raley, R. Kelly and Larry Bumpass. 2003. "The Topography of the Divorce Plateau: Levels and Trends in Union Stability in the United States After 1980." Demographic Research 8:245-60.

Ruggles, S. 1997. "The Rise of Divorce and Separation in the United States, 1880-1990." Demography 34(4):455-66.

Schoen, R. and N. Standish. 2001. "The Retrenchment of Marriage: Results From Marital Status Life Tables for the United States, 1995." Population and Development Review 27(3):553-563.

Seltzer, J. A., N. C. Schaeffer, and H. W. Charng. 1989. "Family Ties After Divorce - the Relationship Between Visiting and Paying Child-Support." Journal of Marriage and the Family 51(4):1013-31.

Smock, P. J. 1993. "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young-Women Over the Past 2 Decades." Demography 30(3):353-71.

South, S. J. 2001. "Time-Dependent Effects of Wives' Employment on Marital Dissolution." American Sociological Review 66(2):226-45.

South, Scott J. and Kim M. Lloyd. 1995. "Spousal Alternatives and Marital Dissolution." American Sociological Review 60:21-35.

*South, Scott J. 1995. "Do You Need to Shop Around? Age at Marriage, Spousal Alternatives and Marital Dissolution." Journal of Family Issues 16:432-449.

Sweeney, M. M. and J. A. Phillips. 2004. "Understanding Racial Differences in Marital Disruption: Recent Trends and Explanations." Journal of Marriage and the Family 66(3):639-50.

Teachman, J. D. 2002. "Stability Across Cohorts in Divorce Risk Factors." Demography 39(2):331-51.

Tzeng, M. S. 1992. "The Effects of Socioeconomic Heterogamy and Changes on Marital Dissolution for First Marriages." Journal of Marriage and the Family 54(3):609-19.

Waite, Linda J. and Lee A. Lillard. 1991. "Children and Marital Disruption." American Journal of Sociology 96:930-953.

White, Lynn K. 1990. "Determinants of Divorce: A Review of Research in the the Eighties." Journal of Marriage and the Family 52(4):904-12.

Wolfinger, Nicholas H. 1999. "Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce." Demography 36:415-420.

March 2: Remarriage and Stepfamilies

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#Bumpass, Larry L., R. Kelly Raley, and James A. Sweet. 1995. "The Changing Character of Stepfamilies: Implications of Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing." Demography 32:425-436.

#MacDonald, William L. and Alfred DeMaris. 1995. "Remarriage, Stepchildren, and Marital Conflict: Challenges to the Incomplete Institutionalization Hypothesis." Journal of Marriage and the Family 57:387-401.

#*Sweeney, Megan M. 1997. "Remarriage of Women and Men After Divorce: The Role of Socioeconomic Prospects." Journal of Family Issues 18(5):479-502.

#Thomson E, Mosley J, Hanson TL, Mclanahan SS. 2001. Remarriage, Cohabitation, and Changes in Mothering Behavior. Journal of Marriage and the Family 63(2):370-80

Bumpass, Larry L. 1984. Some Characteristics of Children’s Second Families. American Journal of Sociology 90:608-623.

Bumpass, Larry, James Sweet, and Teresa C. Martin. 1992. "Changing Patterns of Remarriage." Journal of Marriage and the Family 52:747-756.

*Booth, Alan and John N. Edwards. 1992. "Starting Over: Why Remarriages are More Unstable." Journal of Family Issues 13:179-194.

Cherlin AJ, Furstenberg FF. 1994. Stepfamilies in the United-States - a Reconsideration. Annual Review of Sociology 20:359-81

Coleman M, Ganong L, Fine M. 2000. Reinvestigating Remarriage: Another Decade of Progress. Journal of Marriage and the Family 62(4):1288-307

de Graaf, Paul M. and Matthijs Kalmijn. 2003. "Alternative Routes in the Remarriage Market: Competing-Risk Analyses of Union Formation After Divorce." Social Forces 81:1459-98.

Griffith, Janet D., Helen P. Koo, and C. M. Suchindran. 1985. “Childbearing and Family in Remarriage.” Demography 22:73-88.

*Hill, Martha S. 1992. "The Role of Economic Resources and Remarriage in Financial Assistance for Children of Divorce." Journal of Family Issues 13:158-178.

Seltzer, Judith A. 1991. "Relationships between Fathers and Children Who Live Apart: The Father's Role after Separation." Journal of Marriage and the Family 53:79-101.

Sweeney, M. M. 2002. "Remarriage and the Nature of Divorce - Does It Matter Which Spouse Chose to Leave?" Journal of Family Issues 23(3):410-440.

Vikat, Andres, Elizabeth Thomson, and Jan M. Hoem. 1999. “Stepfamily Fertility in Contemporary Sweden: The Impact of Childbearing Before the Current Union.” Population Studies 53:211-225.

*White, Lynn. 1992. "The Effect of Parental Divorce and Remarriage on Parental Support for Adult Children." Journal of Family Issues 13:234-240.

March 9: Fertility in industrialized countries – general trends, theories, and explanations

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#O’Connell, Martin. 2002. “Childbearing.” Chapter 3 (Pp. 67-94) in Casper and Bianchi (2002).

#Bongaarts, John and Griffith Feeney. 1998. “On the Quantum and Tempo of Fertility.” Population and Development Review 24:271 292.

#Kohler, Hans-Peter, Francesco C. Billari, and Jose A. Ortega. 2002. "The Emergence of Lowest-Low Fertility in Europe During the 1990s." Population and Development Review 28:641-804.

#Martin, Steven P. 2000. “Diverging Fertility Among U.S. Women Who Delay Childbearing Past Age 30.” Demography 37:523-533.

Bongaarts J. 2002. The End of the Fertility Transition in the Developed World. Population and Development Review 28(3):419-443.

Brewster, Karin L. and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 2000. "Fertility and Women's Employment in Industrialized Nations." Annual Review of Sociology 26271-96.

Foster, Caroline. 2000. “The Limits to Low Fertility: A Biosocial Approach.” Population Studies 26:209-234.

Friedman Debra, Michael Hechter, and Satoshi Kanazawa. 1994. “A Theory of the Value of Children.” Demography 31:375-401. *please read in conjunction with following comment and rejoinder*

Lehrer Evelyn L., Shoshana Grossbard-Shechtman, and J. William Leasure. 1996. “Comment on ‘A theory of the value of children.’” Demography 33:133-137.

Friedman, Debra, Michael Hecther, and Satoshi Kanazawa. 1996. “Reply to Lehrer, Shechtman and Leasure.” Demography 33:137-139.

Jonsson, S. H. and M. S. Rendall. 2004. "The Fertility Contribution of Mexican Immigration to the United States." Demography 41(1):129-50.

*Lesthaeghe, Ron and Guy Moors. 2000. "Recent Trends in Fertility and Household Formation in the Industrialized World." Review of Population and Social Policy 9:121-170.

*Lesthaeghe, Ron. 1995. “The Second Demographic Transition in Western countries: An Interpretation”. Pp. 17-62 in Gender and Family Change in Industrialized Countries, edited by Karen O. Mason and An-Magrit Jensen. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England.

Lesthaeghe, Ron and Johan Surkyn. 1988. Cultural Dynamics and Economic Theories of Fertility Change. Population and Development Review 14:1-45.

Lesthaeghe, Ron and Paul Willems. 1999. Is low Fertility a Temporary Phenomenon in the European Union? Population and Development Review 25:211-228.

Morgan, S. P. 2003. “Is Low Fertility a Twenty-First-Century Demographic Crisis?” Demography 40:589-603.

Morgan, S. Philip. 1996. Characteristic Features of Modern American Fertility" in Casterline, Lee, and Foote, eds., Population and Development Review 22, Supplement, Fertility in the United States, pp:19-56.  (*Note that this entire issue of PDR is well worth looking at)

Rindfuss, Ronald R., S. Philip Morgan and Kate Offutt. 1996 “Education and the Changing Age Pattern of American Fertility: 1963-1989” Demography 33(3) 277-290.

Rindfuss, Ronald and Allen Parnell. 1989. “The Varying Connection Between Marital Status and Childbearing in the United States.” Population and Development Review 15:447‑470.

Schoen, R. 2004. "Timing Effects and the Interpretation of Period Fertility." Demography 41(4):801-19.

Schoen, Robert, Young Kim, Constance A. Nathanson, Jason Fields, and Nan M. Astone. 1997. “Why Do Americans Want Children?” Population and Development Review 23:333-58.

Schultz, Theodore. 1973. “The Value of Children: An Economic Perspective.” Journal of Political Economy 81:S2-S13.

Rindfuss, R. R.; Guzzo, K. B., and Morgan, S. P. 2003. “The Changing Institutional Context of Low Fertility.” Population Research and Policy Review 22:411-438.

Van de Kaa, Dirk J. 1987. “Europe’s Second Demographic Transition.” Population Bulletin 42(1).

March 23: Fertility Preferences and Intentions, Contraception, Nonmarital childbearing

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#“Chapter 4: Single-Mother Families” Pp. 95-122 in Casper and Bianchi.

#Musick, K. 2002. "Planned and Unplanned Childbearing Among Unmarried Women." Journal of Marriage and the Family 64(4):915-29.

#Pagnini, Deanna L. and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 1993. “The Divorce of Marriage and Childbearing: Changing Attitudes and Behavior in the United States.” Population and Development Review 19:331‑347.

#Schoen, R., N. M. Astone, Y. J. Kim, C. A. Nathanson, and J. M. Fields. 1999. "Do Fertility Intentions Affect Fertility Behavior?" Journal of Marriage and the Family 61(3):790-799.

Axinn, William, Marin Clarkberg, and Arland Thornton. 1994. “Family Influences on Family Size Preferences.” Demography 31:65-80.

Barber, Jennifer S. 2000. "Intergenerational Influences on the Entry into Parenthood: Mothers' Preferences for Family and Nonfamily Behavior." Social Forces 79:319-348.

Brewster, K. Cooksey, E., Guilkey, D., and Rindfuss, R. 1998. “The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family 60:493-504.

*Ellwood, David T. and Christopher Jencks. 2004. “The Uneven Spread of Single-Parent Families: What do We Know? Where Do We Look for Answers?” Pp.3-77 in Social Inequality, edited by Kathryn M. Neckerman. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Fu, Haishun, Jacqueline E. Darroch, Stanley K. Henshaw, and Elizabeth Kolb. 1998. “Measuring the Extent of Abortion Underreporting in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth.” Family Planning Perspectives 30:128‑33,138.

Grady, William R., Koray Tanfer, John O. Billey, and J. Lincoln-Hanson. 1996. “Men’s Perceptions of Their Roles and Responsibilities Regarding Sex, Contraception, and Childrearing.” Family Planning Perspectives 28:221-226.

Henshaw, Stanley. 1998. “Unintended Pregnancy in the U.S.Family Planning Perspectives 30:24-29.

Kost, Kathryn and Jacqueline D. Forrest. 1995. “Intention Status of U.S. Births in 1988: Differences by Mother's Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics.” Family Planning Perspectives 27:11‑18.

Morgan, S. Philip, and Ronald R. Rindfuss. 1999. Reexamining the Link of Early Childbearing to Marriage and to Subsequent Fertility. Demography 36:59-75.

Quesnel-Vallee A, Morgan SP. 2003. Missing the Target? Correspondence of Fertility Intentions and Behavior in the Us. Population Research and Policy Review 22(5-6):497-525

Seltzer, Judith A. 2000. "Families Formed Outside of Marriage." Journal of Marriage and the Family 621247-68.

Singh, Susheela, and Jacqueline E. Darroch. 1999. “Trends in Sexual Activity Among Adolescent American Women: 1982-1995.” Family Planning Perspectives 31:212-219.

Smith, Herbert, S. Philip Morgan and Tanya Koropeckyj‑Cox. 1998. “A Decomposition of Trends in the Nonmarital Fertility Ratios of Blacks and Whites in the United States, 1960‑1992.” Demography 33:141-152.

Thomson, Elizabeth, and Yvonne Brandreth. 1995. “Measuring Fertility Demand.” Demography 32:81-96.

Trussell, James and Barbara Vaughan 1999. “Contraceptive Failure, Method-Related Discontinuation and Resumption of Use: Results from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth.” Family Planning Perspectives 31:64-72.

Williams, Lindy, Joyce Abma, and Linda J. Piccinino. 1999. “The Correspondence Between Intention to Avoid Childbearing and Subsequent Fertility: A Prospective Analysis.” Family Planning Perspectives 31:220-227.

*Wu, Lawrence L. and Barbara Wolfe (eds.). 2001. Out of Wedlock New York: Russell Sage.

April 6: Fertility in developing countries – recent trends and theories

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#Bongaarts, John. 1997. “Trends in Unwanted Childbearing in the Developing World.” Studies in Family Planning 28:267-277.

#Bongaarts, John. 1991. “The KAP‑Gap and the Unmet Need for Contraception.” Population and Development Review 17:293‑313

#Mason Karen, and Anju M. Taj. 1987. “Differences Between Women’s and Men’s Reproductive Goals in Developing Countries.” Population and Development Review 13:611-38.

#Sandberg, J. 2005. "The Influence of Network Mortality Experience on Nonnumeric Response Concerning Expected Family Size: Evidence From a Nepalese Mountain Village." Demography 42(4):737-56.

Bongaarts J. 1999. “The Fertility Impact of Changes in the Timing of Childbearing in the Developing World.” Population Studies-a Journal of Demography 53(3):277-89

Bongaarts, John and Susan Watkins. 1996. “Social Interactions and Contemporary Fertility Transitions.” Population and Development Review 22:639‑82.

Caldwell, John. 1997. “Global Fertility Transition: Need for Unifying Theory.” Population and Development Review 23:803‑812.

Feeney, Griffith and Wang Feng. 1993. “Parity Progression and Birth Intervals in China: The Influence of Policy in Hastening Fertility Decline.” Population and Development Review 19:61‑101.

Freedman, Ronald. 1997. “Do Family Planning Programs Affect Fertility Preferences? A Literature Review.” Studies in Family Planning 28:1-13.

Leete, Richard. 1987. “The Post‑demographic Transition in East and South East Asia: Similarities and Contrasts with Europe.” Population Studies 41:187‑206.

Mason, Karen Oppenheim. 1997. “Explaining Fertility Transitions.” Demography 34:443-454.

Pollak, Robert A. and Susan C. Watkins. 1993. “Cultural and Economic Approaches to Fertility: Proper Marriage or Messaliance?” Population and Development Review 19:467-496.

April 12: Work and Family

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#“Chapter 10: Work and Family” (Pp.281-309) in Casper and Bianchi (2002).

#Amato, P. R., D. R. Johnson, A. Booth, and S. J. Rogers. 2003. "Continuity and Change in Marital Quality Between 1980 and 2000." Journal of Marriage and the Family 65(1):1-22.

#Oppenheimer, Valerie K. 1994. "Women's Rising Employment and the Future of the Family in Industrial Societies." Population and Development Review 20:293-342.

#Bianchi, Suzanne M. 2000. "Maternal Employment and Time With Children: Dramatic Change or Surprising Continuity?" Demography 37:401-414.

#Bianchi, Suzanne M., Melissa A. Milkie, Liana C. Sayer, and John P. Robinson. 2000. "Is Anyone Doing the Housework? Trends in the Gender Division of Household Labor." Social Forces 79:191-228.

 “Chapter 7: Child Care” (Pp.175-207) in Casper and Bianchi (2002).

*Blair, Sampson L. and Daniel T. Lichter. 1991. "Measuring the Gender Division of Household Labor." Journal of Family Issues 12:91-113.

Brines, Julie. 1994. "Economic Dependency, Gender, and the Division of Labor at Home." American Journal of Sociology 100:652-688.

Gupta, Sanjiv. 1999. "The Effect of Transitions in Marital Status on Men's Performance of Housework." Journal of Marriage and the Family 61:700-712.

Kalmijn, Matthijs. 1999. "Father Involvement in Childrearing and the Perceived Stability of Marriage." Journal of Marriage and the Family 61:409-421.

Liebowitz, Arleen and Jacob A. Klerman. 1995. "Explaining Changes in Married Mothers' Employment over Time." Demography 32:365-378.

Rogers, Stacy J. and Paul A. Amato. 1997. "Is Marital Quality Declining? The Evidence from Two Generations." Social Forces 75:1089-1100.

Rogers, Stacy J. and Paul A. Amato. 2000. "Have Changes in Gender Relations Affected Marital Quality?" Social Forces 79:731-753.

Shelton, B. A. and John, D. 1996. “The Division of Household Labor.” Annual Review of Sociology 22:299-322.

South, Scott J. and Glenna Spitze. 1994. "Housework in Marital and Nonmarital Households." American Sociological Review 59:327-347.

*Spain, Daphne and Suzanne M. Bianchi. 1996. Balancing Act: Motherhood, Marriage, and Employment among American Women. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Waldfogel, Jane, Wen-Jui Han, and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. 2002. “The Effects of Early Maternal Employment on Child Cognitive Development.” Demography 39: 369-392.

Winkler, A. E., T. D. Mcbride, and C. Andrews. 2005. "Wives Who Outearn Their Husbands: a Transitory or Persistent Phenomenon for Couples?" Demography 42(3):523-35.

April 20: Family structure – trends and implications for well-being

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#Chapter 9: “Economic Causes and Consequences of Changing Family Structure” (Pp. 249-280) in Casper and Bianchi (2002)

#Musick, K. and R. D. Mare. 2004. "Family Structure, Intergenerational Mobility, and the Reproduction of Poverty: Evidence for Increasing Polarization?" Demography 41(4):629-48.

#Goldscheider, F. K. and R. M. Bures. 2003. "The Racial Crossover in Family Complexity in the United States." Demography 40(3):569-87.

#Thomson E, Hanson TL, Mclanahan SS. 1994. “Family-Structure and Child Well-Being - Economic-Resources Vs Parental Behaviors.” Social Forces 73(1):221-42

#Wu, Lawrence L. 1996. "Effects of Family Instability, Income, and Income Instability on the Risk of a Premarital Birth." American Sociological Review 61:386-406.

Chapter 8: “Child Well-Being” (Pp. 209-247) in Casper and Bianchi.

Aquilino, William S. 1994. "Impact of Childhood Family Disruption on Young Adults' Relationship with Parents." Journal of Marriage and the Family 56:295-313.

Aquilino, William S. 1996. "The Life Course of Children Born to Unmarried Mothers." Journal of Marriage and the Family 58:293-310.

*Bumpass, Larry L., Teresa C. Martin, and James A. Sweet. 1991. "The Impact of Family Background and Early Marital Factors on Marital Disruption." Journal of Family Issues 12:22-42.

Cherlin AJ, Fomby P. 2004. “Welfare, Work, and Changes in Mothers' Living Arrangements in Low-Income Families.” Population Research and Policy Review 23(5-6):543-65

Cherlin, Andrew J., Kathleen E. Kiernan, and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale. 1995. "Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood." Demography 32:299-318.

*Eggebeen, David J., Anastasia R. Snyder, and Wendy D. Manning. 1996. "Children in Single-Father Families in Demographic Perspective." Journal of Family Issues 17:441-494.

Lye, Diane N., Daniel H. Klepinger, Patricia D. Hyle, and Anjanette Nelson. 1995. "Childhood Living Arrangements and Adult Children's Relations with Their Parents." Demography 32:261-280.

Geronimus, Arlene T. and Sanders Korenman. 1992. "The Socioeconomic Consequences of Teen Childbearing Reconsidered." Quarterly Journal of Economics 107:1187-1214. (see Hoffman et al. paper for a response)

Ginther DK, Pollak RA. 2004. “Family Structure and Children's Educational Outcomes: Blended Families, Stylized Facts, and Descriptive Regressions.” Demography 41(4):671-96

Hoffman, Saul D., E. Michael Foster, Frank F. Furstenberg Jr. 1993. “Reevaluating the Costs of Teenage Childbearing.” Demography 30:1-13.

Lichter, Daniel, Diane McLaughlin, and David Ribar. 1997. “Welfare and the Rise in Female Headed Families.” American Journal of Sociology 103:112‑43.

McLanahan, Sara and Gary Sandefur. 1994. Growing up with a Single Parent: What Hurts, What Helps. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rendall, Michael S. 1999. "Entry or Exit? A Transition-Probability Approach to Explaining the High Prevalence of Single Motherhood Among Black Women." Demography 36:369-376.

Sigle-Rushton, Wendy and Sara McLanahan. 2002. “The Living Arrangements of New Unmarried Mothers.” Demography 39(3):415-433.

*Wu, Larry and Brian Martinson. 1993. “Family Structure and the Risk of a Premarital Birth.” American Sociological Review 58:210-232.

April 27: Intergenerational Relations, Caregiving, Living Arrangements

Questions Trends Theories/Explanations Data/Methods Wrap-up

#“Chapter 6: Grandparenting,” (Pp. 149-174) in Casper and Bianchi (2002).

#Goldscheider, Frances and Calvin Goldscheider. 1993. "Whose Nest? A Two-Generational View of Leaving Home During the 1980s." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:851-862.

#Henretta JC, Hill MS, Li W, Soldo BJ, Wolf DA. 1997. “Selection of Children to Provide Care: the Effect of Earlier Parental Transfers.” Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences 52:110-9

#Lee, Yean-Ju, William L. Parish, and Robert J. Willis. 1994. "Sons, Daughters, and Intergenerational Support in Taiwan." American Journal of Sociology 99:1010-1041.

#Thornton, Arland, Linda Young-DeMarco, and Frances K. Goldscheider. 1993. "Leaving the Parental Nest: The Experience of a Young White Cohort in the 1980s." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:216-229.

Aquilino, William S. 1991. "Family Structure and Home-Leaving: A Further Specification of the Relationship." Journal of Marriage and the Family 53:999-1010.

Aquilino, William S. 1990. "The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics." Journal of Marriage and the Family 52:405-419.

Aquilino, William S. 1994. "Later Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults' Assessment of Parent-Child Relations." Journal of Marriage and the Family 56:908-924.

Bongaarts, John and Zachary Zimmer. 2002. "Living Arrangements of Older Adults in the Developing World: An Analysis of DHS Household Surveys." Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 57B(3):S145-S157.

Buck, Nicholas and Jacqueline Scott. 1993. "She's Leaving Home: But Why? An Analysis of Young People Leaving the Parental Home." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:863-874.

*Bumpass, Larry. 1994. "A Comparative Analysis of Coresidence and Contact with Parents in Japan and the United States." Pp.221-246 in Tradition and Change in the Asian Family, edited by L.J. Cho and M. Yada. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.

Couch, Kenneth A., Mary C. Daly, and Douglas A. Wolf. 1999. "Time? Money? Both? The Allocation of Resources to Older Parents." Demography 36:219-232.

DaVanzo, Julie and Angelique Chan. 1994. "Living Arrangements of Older Malaysians: Who Coresides with Their Adult Children?" Demography 31:95-113.

De Vos, Susan. 1989. "Leaving the Parental Home in Six Latin American Countries." Journal of Marriage and the Family 51:615-627.

Goldscheider,Frances and Julie DaVanzo. 1989. "Pathways to Independent Living in Early Adulthood." Demography 26:597-614.

Goldscheider, Frances K. and Calvin Goldscheider. 1998. "The Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Leaving and Returning Home." Journal of Marriage and the Family 60:745-756. 

Goldscheider, Frances K. and Linda J. Waite. 1987. "Nest-Leaving Patterns and the Transition to Marriage for Young Men and Women." Journal of Marriage and the Family 49:507-516.

Kramarow, Ellen A. 1995. "The Elderly Who Live Alone in the United States: Historical Perspectives on Household Change." Demography 32:335-352.

Lillard, Lee A. and Robert J. Willis. 1997. "Motives for Intergenerational Transfers: Evidence from Malaysia." Demography 34:115-134.

Lye, D. N. 1996. “Adult Child-Parent Relationships.” Annual Review of Sociology 22:79-102.

Ogawa, Naohiro and Robert D. Retherford. 1993. "Care of the Elderly in Japan: Changing Norms and Expectations." Journal of Marriage and the Family 55:585-597.

Ogawa, Naohiro and Robert D. Retherford. 1997. "Shifting Costs of Caring for the Elderly Back to Families in Japan: Will it Work?" Population and Development Review 23:59-94.

Pezzin, Liliana E. and Barbara S. Schone. 1999. "Parental Marital Disruption and Intergenerational Transfers: An Analysis of Lone Elderly Parents and their Children." Demography 36:287-297.

Roan, Carol L. and R. Kelly Raley. 1996. "Intergenerational Coresidence and Contact: A Longitudinal Analysis of Adult Children's Response to Their Mother's Widowhood." Journal of Marriage and the Family 58:708-718.

Soldo BJ, Wolf DA, Agree EM. 1990. “Family, Households, and Care Arrangements of Frail Older Women - a Structural-Analysis.” Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences 45(6):S238-S249

Spitze, Glenna, John R. Logan, Glenn Deane, and Suzanne Zerger. 1994. "Adult Children's Divorce and Intergenerational Relationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family 56:279-293.

*Ward, Russell and Glenna Spitze. 1996. "Will the Children Ever Leave: Parent-Child Coresidence History and Plans." Journal of Family Issues 17:514-539.

Wolf, Douglas A. and Beth J. Soldo. 1988. "Household Composition Choices of Older Unmarried Women." Demography 25:387-403.