WLS Codebooks and Flowcharts

Note: Codebooks contain frequency data from the private data release. For some variables, these differ from the frequencies in the public release. Variables that differ between the public and private versions include "(not available on public release)" as part of the variable description, or a note indicating the difference between the public and private versions.

Phone: Psychological Well-Being

This section contains total scores and number of questions answered for 
the Psychological Well-Being Scale: autonomy, environmental mastery, 
personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and
self-acceptance.

NOTE: Most variables in this section were recreated for the 3/98 release 
      of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: 1993/94 Sibling Telephone and 
      Mail Surveys - WLS23S_2

NOTE: If using the psychological well-being items from both the telephone
      and mail surveys (WLS23SM), note the different coding schemes used for 
      the two instruments.

NOTE: For siblings who were also in the original WLS graduate sample, the
      values for the following variables were taken from the 1992/93 Graduate
      Phone Interview (and hence the source variables often include
      corresponding variables with prefix "RN").


sn001re            Was this respondent randomly selected to answer 
                   psychological variables.
sn002red,sn003red  Total score for autonomy and number of autonomy questions
                   answered.
sn004red,sn005red  Total score for environmental mastery and number
                   of environmental mastery questions answered.
sn006red,sn007red  Total score for personal growth and number of 
                   personal growth questions answered.
sn008red,sn009red  Total score for positive relations with others
                   and number of positive relations questions answered. 
sn010red,sn011red  Total score for purpose in life and number of
                   purpose in life questions answered.
sn012red,sn013red  Total score for self-acceptance and number of
                   self-acceptance questions answered.
sn014red,sn015red  Total score for psychological well-being
                   and number of psychological well-being questions answered.
sn016rec-sn027rec  Individual questions for the psychological well-being
                   scale.

NOTE:  In releases prior to 3/98, if the respondent answered "neither agree 
       or disagree" to an individual component of the well-being scale, 
       it was treated as missing data along with "don't know", or refused.
       The updated total scores (sn002red-sn015red) assign a mid-point (4) to 
       the "neither agree or disagree" response.  The individual questions 
       (sn016rec-sn027rec) have also been recoded to 4 for the  "neither 
       agree nor disagree" category.  This differs from coding of similar 
       items in the XPERS module.  See Change Notice #13 for details.

NOTE:  Because the unfolding technique was used to ask these questions 
       (see flowchart for question format) there are a few cases where 
       someone initially answered agree or disagree but in the follow up
       question did not state an intensity of this dis/agreement.  In
       these cases, the response was coded as either "don't know" or
       "refused" depending on the respondent's answer.

NOTE:  See Appendix K - COR574A and COR437 for details regarding creation 
       of the psychological well-being scores.

NOTE:  Variables np001rec-np068rer in WLS23SM contain more detailed
       variables measuring the same concepts.

sn001re: Respondent is in 80% Random sample for Psychological Well-Being.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, RN001RE

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
0 RESPONDENT NOT IN THE 80% SAMPLE 451 514 965
1 RESPONDENT IS IN THE 80% SAMPLE 1873 1966 3839

sn002red: Summary score for Autonomy.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 438s, 439, 490, 490b, RN002RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, not ascertained, < 2 valid responses, sn003red < 2 50 45 95
-2 451 514 965
2 6 4 10
3 19 20 39
4 37 44 81
5 14 13 27
6 17 9 26
7 45 55 100
8 236 262 498
9 247 218 465
10 70 67 137
11 80 83 163
12 290 322 612
13 429 454 883
14 high 333 370 703
Note: See sn016rec, sn025rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See sn003red for number of valid components.

sn003red: Number of Autonomy items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 438s, 439, 490, 490b, RN002RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 0 quest answered 38 27 65
1 1 quest answered 12 18 30
2 2 quest answered 1823 1921 3744
Note: See sn016rec, sn025rec.

sn004red: Summary score for Environmental Mastery.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440, 440b, 442m, 442p, RN004RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, not ascertained, < 2 valid responses, sn005red < 2 47 35 82
-2 451 514 965
2 7 9 16
3 8 22 30
4 25 32 57
5 10 16 26
6 13 12 25
7 34 51 85
8 183 219 402
9 167 250 417
10 65 93 158
11 74 71 145
12 336 314 650
13 428 432 860
14 high 476 410 886
Note: See sn017rec, sn021rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See sn005red for number of valid components.

sn005red: Number of Environmental Mastery items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440, 440b, 442m, 442p, RN004RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 0 quest answered 38 27 65
1 1 quest answered 9 8 17
2 2 quest answered 1826 1931 3757
Note: See sn017rec, sn021rec.

sn006red: Summary score for Personal Growth.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442s, 443, 490m, 490p, RN006RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, not ascertained, < 2 valid responses, sn007red < 2 52 43 95
-2 451 514 965
2 2 3 5
3 9 3 12
4 16 7 23
5 5 3 8
6 7 6 13
7 41 34 75
8 192 198 390
9 135 174 309
10 42 37 79
11 68 43 111
12 299 268 567
13 424 476 900
14 high 581 671 1252
Note: See sn022rec, sn026rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See sn007red for number of valid components.

sn007red: Number of Personal Growth items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442s, 443, 490m, 490p, RN006RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 0 quest answered 38 29 67
1 1 quest answered 14 14 28
2 2 quest answered 1821 1923 3744
Note: See sn022rec, sn026rec.

sn008red: Summary score for Positive Relationships.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440m, 440p, 488g, 488j, RN008RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, not ascertained, < 2 valid responses, sn009red < 2 60 45 105
-2 451 514 965
2 25 17 42
3 45 28 73
4 74 59 133
5 24 10 34
6 21 11 32
7 49 35 84
8 207 162 369
9 137 92 229
10 36 32 68
11 66 51 117
12 299 251 550
13 331 385 716
14 high 499 788 1287
Note: See sn018rec, sn023rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See sn009red for number of valid components.

sn009red: Number of Positive Relationships items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440m, 440p, 488g, 488j, RN008RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 0 quest answered 39 29 68
1 1 quest answered 21 16 37
2 2 quest answered 1813 1921 3734
Note: See sn018rec, sn023rec.

sn010red: Summary score for Purpose in Life.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440s, 441, 488m, 488p, RN010RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, not ascertained, < 2 valid responses, sn011red < 2 46 43 89
-2 451 514 965
2 14 14 28
3 29 33 62
4 20 32 52
5 16 11 27
6 26 17 43
7 67 71 138
8 236 323 559
9 122 206 328
10 35 47 82
11 62 75 137
12 214 229 443
13 424 438 862
14 high 562 427 989
Note: See sn019rec, sn024rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See sn011red for number of valid components.

sn011red: Number of Purpose in Life items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440s, 441, 488m, 488p, RN010RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 0 quest answered 39 29 68
1 1 quest answered 7 14 21
2 2 quest answered 1827 1923 3750
Note: See sn019rec, sn024rec.

sn012red: Summary score for Self-Acceptance.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442, 442b, 492f, 492j, RN012RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, not ascertained, < 2 valid responses, sn013red < 2 48 44 92
-2 451 514 965
2 4 1 5
3 8 5 13
4 18 15 33
5 11 5 16
6 8 4 12
7 38 38 76
8 139 136 275
9 87 74 161
10 33 37 70
11 61 53 114
12 505 478 983
13 498 597 1095
14 high 415 479 894
Note: See sn020rec, sn027rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See sn013red for number of valid components.

sn013red: Number of Self-Acceptance items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442, 442b, 492f, 492j, RN012RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 0 quest answered 37 29 66
1 1 quest answered 11 15 26
2 2 quest answered 1825 1922 3747
Note: See sn020rec, sn027rec.

sn014red: Summary score for Psychological Well-Being.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 438s, 439, 440, 440b, 440m, 440p, 440s, 442, 442b, 442m, 442p, 442s, 443, 441, 488g, 488j, 488m, 488p, 490, 490b, 490m, 490p, 492f, 492j, RN014RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, Not ascertained, No valid responses to components of sum 37 27 64
-2 451 514 965
10 - 61 381 398 779
62 - 68 422 410 832
69 - 73 422 480 902
74 - 78 400 415 815
79 - 83 194 213 407
84 high 17 23 40
Note: See sn016rec, sn017rec, sn018rec, sn019rec, sn020rec, sn021rec,
sn022rec, sn023rec, sn024rec, sn025rec, sn026rec, sn027rec.

See SN014REI for an alternate version of this variable in which missing values are replaced by mean of valid components prior to summing.

sn014rei: Summary score for Psychological Well-Being,mean imputed for missing components.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 438s, 439, 440, 440b, 440m, 440p, 440s, 442, 442b, 442m, 442p, 442s, 443, 441, 488g, 488j, 488m, 488p, 490, 490b, 490m, 490p, 492f, 492j, RN014RED
Revisions: Added Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 Refused, Not ascertained, < 6 valid responses to components of sum 38 29 67
-2 451 514 965
31 - 62 410 413 823
63 - 69 459 459 918
70 - 74 435 486 921
75 - 79 363 396 759
80 - 84 168 183 351
Note: If fewer than 6 of the components have valid responses, the score is -3. If 1-6 scores are missing, the mean for each missing
components is imputed from the mean of all valid components for that case. See sn015red for the valid number of components.

sn015red: Number of Psychological Well-Being items answered.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 438s, 439, 440, 440b, 440m, 440p, 440s, 442, 442b, 442m, 442p, 442s, 443, 441, 488g, 488j, 488m, 488p, 490, 490b, 490m, 490p, 492f, 492j, RN014RED
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-2 451 514 965
0 37 27 64
2 1 1 2
5 0 1 1
7 2 2 4
8 0 1 1
9 3 1 4
10 8 6 14
11 43 55 98
12 1779 1872 3651
Note: See sn016rec, sn017rec, sn018rec, sn019rec, sn020rec, sn021rec,
sn022rec, sn023rec, sn024rec, sn025rec, sn026rec, sn027rec.

sn016rec: To what extent do you agree that you tend to be influenced by people with strong opinions?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 438s, 439, RN016REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 36 26 62
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 10 13 23
1 AGREE STRONGLY 55 74 129
2 AGREE MODERATELY 332 373 705
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 114 106 220
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 31 33 64
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 120 98 218
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 663 739 1402
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 512 504 1016

sn017rec: To what extent do you agree that, in general, you feel you are in charge of the situation in which you live?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440, 440b, RN017REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 35 26 61
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 9 6 15
1 AGREE STRONGLY 969 996 1965
2 AGREE MODERATELY 664 704 1368
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 65 43 108
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 8 21 29
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 22 29 51
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 68 102 170
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 33 39 72
Note: This item was reverse coded during the construction of the
scale in SN004RED.

sn018rec: To what extent do you agree that maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for you?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440m, 440p, RN018REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 36 26 62
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 13 12 25
1 AGREE STRONGLY 102 72 174
2 AGREE MODERATELY 236 192 428
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 55 38 93
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 16 11 27
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 89 69 158
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 605 554 1159
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 721 992 1713

sn019rec: To what extent do you agree that some people wander aimlessly through life but you are not one of them?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 440s, 441, RN019REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 36 26 62
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 9 16
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1048 1103 2151
2 AGREE MODERATELY 399 440 839
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 50 36 86
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 12 11 23
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 46 31 77
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 139 158 297
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 136 152 288
Note: This item was reverse coded during construction of the scale
in SN010RED.

sn020rec: To what extent do you agree that when you look at the story of your life, you are pleased with how things have turned out?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442, 442b, RN020REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 36 26 62
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 2 6 8
1 AGREE STRONGLY 772 928 1700
2 AGREE MODERATELY 727 706 1433
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 62 43 105
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 6 30 36
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 40 31 71
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 152 131 283
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 76 65 141
Note: This item was reverse coded during construction of the scale
in SN012RED.

sn021rec: To what extent do you agree that the demands of everyday life often get you down?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442m, 442p, RN021REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 36 26 62
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 5 4 9
1 AGREE STRONGLY 62 99 161
2 AGREE MODERATELY 241 334 575
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 126 153 279
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 11 18 29
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 106 113 219
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 625 616 1241
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 661 603 1264

sn022rec: To what extent do you agree that for you, life has been a continuous process of learning, changing, and growing?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 442s, 443, RN022REC

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 35 26 61
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 4 11
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1143 1348 2491
2 AGREE MODERATELY 557 496 1053
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 65 36 101
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 4 3 7
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 16 10 26
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 39 37 76
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 7 6 13
Note: This item was reverse coded during construction of the scale
in SN006RED.

sn023rec: To what extent do you agree that you have not experienced many warm and trusting relationships with others?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 488g, 488j, RN023REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 37 28 65
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 13 8 21
1 AGREE STRONGLY 97 77 174
2 AGREE MODERATELY 216 140 356
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 80 21 101
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 11 13 24
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 65 58 123
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 528 472 1000
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 826 1149 1975

sn024rec: To what extent do you agree that you live life one day at a time and don't really think about the future?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 488m, 488p, RN024REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 35 29 64
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 8 15
1 AGREE STRONGLY 121 152 273
2 AGREE MODERATELY 154 278 432
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 41 53 94
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 32 49 81
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 67 93 160
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 600 656 1256
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 816 648 1464

sn025rec: To what extent do you agree that you judge yourself by what you think is important, not by what others think is important?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 490, 490b, RN025REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 35 29 64
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 4 11
1 AGREE STRONGLY 943 1018 1961
2 AGREE MODERATELY 553 630 1183
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 76 68 144
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 20 26 46
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 34 24 58
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 149 121 270
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 56 46 102
Note: This item was reverse coded during constructin of the scale
in SN002RED.

sn026rec: To what extent do you agree that you gave up trying to make big improvements or changes in your life a long time ago?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 490m, 490p, RN026REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 37 29 66
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 11 13 24
1 AGREE STRONGLY 124 111 235
2 AGREE MODERATELY 219 255 474
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 64 57 121
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 12 13 25
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 89 64 153
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 608 640 1248
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 709 784 1493

sn027rec: To what extent do you agree that you like most aspects of your personality?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1993-94      Mode: phone
Source variables: SN001RE, 492f, 492j, RN027REC
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 2113 1861 3974
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 40 29 69
-2 451 514 965
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 12 19
1 AGREE STRONGLY 707 764 1471
2 AGREE MODERATELY 927 1002 1929
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 81 58 139
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 16 15 31
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 20 26 46
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 63 51 114
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 12 9 21
Note: This item was reverse coded during construction of the scale
in SN012RED.

Menu