WLS Codebooks and Flowcharts

Note: Codebooks contain frequency data from the private data release. For some variables, these differ from the frequencies in the public release. Variables that differ between the public and private versions include "(not available on public release)" as part of the variable description, or a note indicating the difference between the public and private versions.

Phone: Psychological Well-Being

This section contains total scores and number of questions answered for 
the Psychological Well-Being Scale: autonomy, environmental mastery, 
personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, and
self-acceptance.

NOTE: Most variables in this section were recreated for the 3/98 release 
      of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study: 1992/93 Telephone and Mail 
      Surveys - WLS23R_5

NOTE: If using the psychological well-being items from both the telephone
      and mail surveys (WLS23M), note the different coding schemes used for 
      the two instruments.

rn001re            Sample selection
rn002red,rn003red  Total score for autonomy and number of autonomy questions
                   answered.
rn004red,rn005red  Total score for environmental mastery and number
                   of environmental mastery questions answered.
rn006red,rn007red  Total score for personal growth and number of 
                   personal growth questions answered.
rn008red,rn009red  Total score for positive relations with others
                   and number of positive relations questions answered. 
rn010red,rn011red  Total score for purpose in life and number of
                   purpose in life questions answered.
rn012red,rn013red  Total score for self-acceptance and number of
                   self-acceptance questions answered.
rn014red,rn015red  Total score for psychological well-being
                   and number of psychological well-being questions answered.
rn016rec-rn027rec  Individual questions for the psychological well-being
                   scale.

NOTE:  In releases prior to 3/98, if the respondent answered "neither agree 
       or disagree" to an individual component of the well-being scale, 
       it was treated as missing data along with "don't know", or refused.
       The updated total scores (rn002red-rn015red) assign a mid-point (4) to 
       the "neither agree or disagree" response.  The individual questions 
       (rn016rec-rn027rec)  have also been recoded to reflect this change;
       "neither agree not disagree" is coded 4 for rn016rec-rn027rec. See 
       Change Notice #12 for details.  Also note that coding was done
       differently for the items in the PERS module.    

NOTE:  See Appendix K - COR574A for details regarding creation of the
       psychological well-being scores.

NOTE:  Variables mn001rec-mn068rer in WLS23M contain more detailed
       variables measuring the same concepts.

NOTE:  Because the unfolding technique was used to ask these questions (see
       flowchart for question format) there are a few cases where someone
       initially answered agree or disagree but in the follow up question
       did not state an intensity of this dis/agreement.  In these cases,
       the response was coded as either "don't know" or "refused" depending
       on the resondent's answer.

rn001re: Respondent is in 80% Random sample for Psychological Well-Being.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
0 RESPONDENT NOT IN THE 80% SAMPLE 842 950 1792
1 RESPONDENT IS IN THE 80% SAMPLE 3138 3563 6701

rn002red: Summary score for Autonomy.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 438s, 439, 490, 490b
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED, < 2 valid responses, rn003red < 2 84 72 156
-2 842 950 1792
2 4 9 13
3 39 32 71
4 72 56 128
5 19 20 39
6 23 15 38
7 76 81 157
8 416 455 871
9 378 399 777
10 94 116 210
11 123 103 226
12 493 579 1072
13 755 875 1630
14 high 562 751 1313
Note: See rn016re, rn025rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See rn003red for number of valid components. The level of autonomy can range from 2 (the lowest possible) to 14 (the highest possible).

rn003red: Number of Autonomy items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 438s, 439, 490, 490b
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 0 quest answered 64 50 114
1 1 quest answered 20 22 42
2 2 quest answered 3054 3491 6545
Note: See rn016re, rn025rec.

rn004red: Summary score for Environmental Mastery.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 440, 440b, 442m, 442p
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED, < 2 valid responses, rn005red < 2 79 64 143
-2 842 950 1792
2 6 23 29
3 18 40 58
4 18 62 80
5 14 27 41
6 16 24 40
7 56 98 154
8 261 380 641
9 310 392 702
10 134 136 270
11 115 120 235
12 587 551 1138
13 767 819 1586
14 high 757 827 1584
Note: See rn017rec, rn021rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See rn005red for number of valid components. The degree of environmental mastery can range from 2 (the lowest possible) to 14 (the highest possible).

rn005red: Number of Environmental Mastery items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 440, 440b, 442m, 442p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 0 quest answered 65 51 116
1 1 quest answered 14 13 27
2 2 quest answered 3059 3499 6558
Note: See rn017rec, rn021rec.

rn006red: Summary score for Personal Growth.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 442s, 443, 490m, 490p
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED, < 2 valid responses, rn006red < 2 77 68 145
-2 842 950 1792
2 9 6 15
3 8 10 18
4 25 27 52
5 14 8 22
6 13 10 23
7 60 49 109
8 324 356 680
9 273 244 517
10 69 63 132
11 104 98 202
12 500 497 997
13 769 978 1747
14 high 893 1149 2042
Note: See rn022rec, rn026rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See rn007red for number of valid components. The degree of personal growth can range from 2 (the lowest possible) to 14 (the highest possible).

rn007red: Number of Personal Growth items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 442s, 443, 490m, 490p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 0 quest answered 69 52 121
1 1 quest answered 8 16 24
2 2 quest answered 3061 3495 6556
Note: See rn022rec, rn026rec.

rn008red: Summary score for Positive Relationships.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 440m, 440p, 488g, 488j
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED, < 2 valid responses, rn009red < 2 84 69 153
-2 842 950 1792
2 47 33 80
3 77 42 119
4 133 84 217
5 35 27 62
6 40 20 60
7 89 79 168
8 392 279 671
9 210 166 376
10 56 48 104
11 94 90 184
12 522 482 1004
13 561 686 1247
14 high 798 1458 2256
Note: See rn018rec, rn023rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See rn009red for number of valid components. The degree of positive relation can range from 2 (the lowest possible) to 14 (the highest possible).

rn009red: Number of Positive Relationships items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 440m, 440p, 488g, 488j
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 0 quest answered 63 50 113
1 1 quest answered 21 19 40
2 2 quest answered 3054 3494 6548
Note: See rn018rec, rn023rec.

rn010red: Summary score for Purpose in Life.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 440s, 441, 488m, 488p
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED, < 2 valid responses, rn011red < 2 90 72 162
-2 842 950 1792
2 22 31 53
3 35 62 97
4 42 65 107
5 14 29 43
6 21 23 44
7 94 148 242
8 405 552 957
9 229 343 572
10 53 59 112
11 75 98 173
12 321 400 721
13 695 816 1511
14 high 1042 865 1907
Note: See rn019rec, rn024rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See rn011red for number of valid components. The degree of puerpose in life can range from 2 (the lowest possible) to 14 (the highest possible).

rn011red: Number of Purpose in Life items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 440s, 441, 488m, 488p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 0 quest answered 68 51 119
1 1 quest answered 22 21 43
2 2 quest answered 3048 3491 6539
Note: See rn019rec, rn024rec.

rn012red: Summary score for Self-Acceptance.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 442, 442b, 492f, 492j
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED, fewer than 2 valid responses, rn013red < 2 80 68 148
-2 842 950 1792
2 7 13 20
3 21 19 40
4 22 26 48
5 12 10 22
6 11 13 24
7 50 70 120
8 231 278 509
9 137 174 311
10 77 66 143
11 117 100 217
12 876 844 1720
13 882 1033 1915
14 high 615 849 1464
Note: See rn020rec, rn027rec.

If either of the two components for the sum are missing, the summary score is coded -3. See rn013red for number of valid components. The degree of self-acceptance can range from 2 (the lowest possible) to 14 (the highest possible).

rn013red: Number of Self-Acceptance items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 442, 442b, 492f, 492j
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 0 quest answered 67 52 119
1 1 quest answered 13 16 29
2 2 quest answered 3058 3495 6553
Note: See rn020rec, rn027rec.

rn014red: Summary score for Psychological Well-Being.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 438s, 439, 440, 440b, 440m, 440p, 440s, 441, 442, 442b, 442m, 442p, 442s, 443, 488g, 488j, 488m, 488p, 490, 490b, 490m, 490p, 492f, 492j
Revisions: Updated 3/98, Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 Refused, Not ascertained, No valid responses to components of sum 62 49 111
-2 842 950 1792
4 - 62 665 706 1371
63 - 68 719 708 1427
69 - 73 688 782 1470
74 - 78 646 813 1459
79 - 83 335 461 796
84 high 23 44 67
Note: See rn016rec, rn017rec, rn018rec, rn019rec, rn020rec, rn021rec,
rn022rec, rn023rec, rn024rec, rn025rec, rn026rec, rn027rec.

RN014RED is coded with a sum if at least one of the twelve items received a valid response. The degree of psychological well-being can range from 1 (the lowest possible) to 84 (the highest possible).

See RN014REI for an alternate version of this variable in which missing values are replaced by mean of valid components prior to summing.

rn014rei: Summary score for Psychological Well-Being, mean imputed for missing components.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 438s, 439, 440, 440b, 440m, 440p, 440s, 441, 442, 442b, 442m, 442p, 442s, 443, 488g, 488j, 488m, 488p, 490, 490b, 490m, 490p, 492f, 492j
Revisions: Added Jan 2008     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 Refused, Not ascertained, < 6 valid components for sum 69 51 120
-2 842 950 1792
20 - 62 646 680 1326
63 - 68 713 713 1426
69 - 73 690 783 1473
74 - 78 651 817 1468
79 - 84 369 519 888
Note: If fewer than 6 of the components have valid responses, the score is -3. If 1-6 scores are missing, the mean for each missing
components is imputed from the mean of all valid components for that case. See rn015red for the number of valid components.

rn015red: Number of Psychological Well-Being items answered.

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN15, 438s, 439, 440, 440b, 440m, 440p, 440s, 441, 442, 442b, 442m, 442p, 442s, 443, 488g, 488j, 488m, 488p, 490, 490b, 490m, 490p, 492f, 492j
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-2 842 950 1792
0 62 49 111
1 1 1 2
2 0 1 1
3 5 0 5
4 1 0 1
6 0 1 1
8 3 2 5
9 2 3 5
10 13 16 29
11 38 55 93
12 3013 3435 6448
Note: See rn016rec, rn017rec, rn018rec, rn019rec, rn020rec, rn021rec,
rn022rec, rn023rec, rn024rec, rn025rec, rn026rec, rn027rec.

rn016rec: To what extent do you agree that you tend to be influenced by people with strong opinions?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 438s, 439
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 64 51 115
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 11 14 25
1 AGREE STRONGLY 85 117 202
2 AGREE MODERATELY 585 656 1241
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 141 167 308
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 34 50 84
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 163 157 320
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 1196 1345 2541
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 859 1006 1865

rn017rec: To what extent do you agree that, in general, you feel you are in charge of the situation in which you live?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 440, 440b
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 63 53 116
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 7 14
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1674 1834 3508
2 AGREE MODERATELY 1125 1237 2362
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 87 69 156
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 21 23 44
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 30 53 83
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 92 218 310
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 39 69 108
Note: This item will have to be reverse coded for the scales.

rn018rec: To what extent do you agree that maintaining close relationships has been difficult and frustrating for you?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 440m, 440p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 63 50 113
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 6 10 16
1 AGREE STRONGLY 150 155 305
2 AGREE MODERATELY 410 332 742
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 103 62 165
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 16 22 38
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 144 124 268
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 1070 1001 2071
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 1176 1807 2983

rn019rec: To what extent do you agree that some people wander aimlessly through life but you are not one of them?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 440s, 441
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 67 51 118
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 11 12 23
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1793 2006 3799
2 AGREE MODERATELY 629 715 1344
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 61 47 108
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 7 14 21
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 49 55 104
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 285 373 658
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 236 290 526
Note: This item will have to be reverse coded for the scales.

rn020rec: To what extent do you agree that when you look at the story of your life, you are pleased with how things have turned out?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 442, 442b
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 67 53 120
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 7 8
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1279 1634 2913
2 AGREE MODERATELY 1223 1237 2460
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 127 81 208
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 32 38 70
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 60 78 138
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 225 268 493
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 124 167 291
Note: This item will have to be reverse coded for the scales.

rn021rec: To what extent do you agree that the demands of everyday life often get you down?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 442m, 442p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 68 50 118
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 6 5 11
1 AGREE STRONGLY 88 179 267
2 AGREE MODERATELY 381 532 913
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 236 277 513
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 15 27 42
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 166 144 310
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 1117 1194 2311
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 1061 1155 2216

rn022rec: To what extent do you agree that for you, life has been a continuous process of learning, changing, and growing?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 442s, 443
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 67 50 117
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 2 5 7
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1855 2384 4239
2 AGREE MODERATELY 958 914 1872
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 113 69 182
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 7 8 15
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 34 34 68
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 78 77 155
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 24 22 46
Note: This item will have to be reverse coded for the scales.

rn023rec: To what extent do you agree that you have not experienced many warm and trusting relationships with others?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 488g, 488j
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 71 51 122
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 8 15
1 AGREE STRONGLY 177 132 309
2 AGREE MODERATELY 415 216 631
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 114 51 165
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 10 14 24
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 98 80 178
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 957 881 1838
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 1289 2130 3419

rn024rec: To what extent do you agree that you live life one day at a time and don't really think about the future?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 488m, 488p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 70 51 121
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 10 9 19
1 AGREE STRONGLY 163 258 421
2 AGREE MODERATELY 229 430 659
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 55 76 131
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 34 63 97
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 117 146 263
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 937 1243 2180
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 1523 1287 2810

rn025rec: To what extent do you agree that you judge yourself by what you think is important, not by what others think is important?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 490, 490b
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 68 52 120
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 5 5 10
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1572 1951 3523
2 AGREE MODERATELY 943 1126 2069
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 110 77 187
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 24 33 57
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 58 47 105
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 257 200 457
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 101 72 173
Note: This item will have to be reverse coded for the scales.

rn026rec: To what extent do you agree that you gave up trying to make big improvements or changes in your life a long time ago?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 490m, 490p
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 69 53 122
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 8 12 20
1 AGREE STRONGLY 174 186 360
2 AGREE MODERATELY 402 405 807
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 107 80 187
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 19 34 53
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 150 132 282
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 1053 1288 2341
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 1156 1373 2529

rn027rec: To what extent do you agree that you like most aspects of your personality?

Data source: Graduate Respondent      Collected in: 1992-93      Mode: phone
Source variables: RN001RE, 492f, 492j
Revisions: Updated 3/98     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
. System missing - NR 1011 813 1824
-3 REFUSED, NOT ASCERTAINED 71 50 121
-2 842 950 1792
-1 DON'T KNOW 8 10 18
1 AGREE STRONGLY 1072 1362 2434
2 AGREE MODERATELY 1666 1848 3514
3 AGREE SLIGHTLY 145 96 241
4 NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 12 10 22
5 DISAGREE SLIGHTLY 46 43 89
6 DISAGREE MODERATELY 101 119 220
7 DISAGREE STRONGLY 17 25 42
Note: This item will have to be reverse coded for the scales.

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