WLS Codebooks and Flowcharts

Note: Codebooks contain frequency data from the private data release. For some variables, these differ from the frequencies in the public release. Variables that differ between the public and private versions include "(not available on public release)" as part of the variable description, or a note indicating the difference between the public and private versions.

Current/Last Job Characteristics

xxlu,xxrhlu      Labor union membership, same as head of household?
xjxcrno          Number of people who work at respondent's current/last job
xjxcrrd-xjxcrpl  Number of hours spent during general task
xjxcrpr          How often does respondent work under the pressure of time?
xjrcrhr-xjrcrop  Job details when working under time pressure
xjxcrdt          How dirty does respondent get on job at current/last job?
xjrcrsm          Measure of repition of job tasks
xjxcrcn-xjrcrs7  Responsibility/authority details
xjbcrsa          How satisfied is respondent with current/last job?
xjxcrh2          Hours a week does respondent usually work at all jobs
xwrwoud          Would sibling respondent work if did not need to?
xwrywr1,xwrywr2  Reasons for answer to XWRWOUD

xxlu: Do you currently belong to a labor union?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 58
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3394 3253 6647
0 NO 734 982 1716
1 YES 309 106 415
Note: Used the 1975 respondent's answer to 1975 - Q133b to code
this variable for cases where selected sib had already
completed the 1975 interview

xxrhlu: Does sibling respondent belong to the same labor union that head of household belonged to?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 59b
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED, 1975 RESPONDENT OR 1977 NONSAMPLE 3417 3312 6729
-2 896 994 1890
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 2 3
0 NO-- different labor unions 97 29 126
1 YES-- same labor union 26 4 30

xjxcrno: Number of people who work at sibling respondent's current/last job.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 20
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3397 3255 6652
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 12 28 40
1 - 6 203 197 400
7 - 25 184 199 383
26 - 100 222 174 396
103 - 700 214 159 373
750 - 60000 202 73 275

xjxcrrd: Number of hours in an average week sibling respondent spends reading, writing, and dealing with written materials at current/last job.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 21
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3253 6649
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 8 2 10
0 None 61 93 154
01 - 69 One to sixty-nine or more hours 969 737 1706

xjxcrhn: Number of hours in an average week sibling respondent spends working with hands, tools, or equipment at current/last job.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 22
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3394 3253 6647
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 3 4 7
0 None 161 59 220
01 - 69 One to sixty-nine or more hours 876 769 1645

xjxcrpl: Number of hours in an average week sibling respondent spends dealing with people about work at current/last job.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 23
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3253 6648
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 9 7 16
0 None 47 54 101
01 - 69 One to sixty-nine or more hours 983 771 1754

xjxcrpr: How often do you work under the pressure of time at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 24
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 3 1 4
1 Always 351 261 612
2 Frequently 356 232 588
3 Some 172 154 326
4 Rarely 60 67 127
5 Never 97 118 215

xjrcrhr: When you work under time pressure at current/last job, does it usually involve longer hours?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 24b
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 103 375 478
0 NO 449 436 885
1 YES 490 278 768

xjrcrhw: When you work under time pressure at current/last job, does it usually involve heavier physical work?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 24c
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 103 375 478
0 NO 725 600 1325
1 YES 214 114 328

xjrcrfm: When you work under time pressure at current/last job, does it usually involve faster physical movements?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 24d
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 103 375 478
0 NO 448 196 644
1 YES 491 518 1009

xjrcrft: When you work under time pressure at current/last job, does it usually involve faster thinking?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 24e
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 103 375 478
0 NO 104 63 167
1 YES 835 651 1486

xjrcrop: When you work under time pressure at current/last job, does it usually involve anything else?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 24f
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 103 375 478
0 NO 794 608 1402
1 YES 145 106 251

xjxcrdt: How dirty do you get on job at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 25
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 3 256 259
1 Very 85 25 110
2 Fairly 182 86 268
3 A little 340 354 694
4 Not at all 380 357 737
5 Depends 52 11 63

xjrcrsm: In what way does sibling respondent perform tasks at current/last job? Measure of repition of job tasks.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 26
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 3 256 259
0 Other 0 2 2
1 Same thing; same way 119 120 239
2 Same thing; different ways 362 326 688
3 Number of different kinds of things 558 385 943

xjxcrcn: How often are you held responsible for things that are really outside of his control at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 27
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3397 3253 6650
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 7 10 17
1 Frequently 255 112 367
2 Some 331 231 562
3 Rarely 297 288 585
4 Never 147 191 338

xjrcrhf: Do you have authority to hire and fire others at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 28
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 3 256 259
0 NO 670 737 1407
1 YES 369 96 465

xjrcrpo: Can you influence or set the rate of pay received by others at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 29
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 3 256 259
0 NO 614 710 1324
1 YES 425 123 548

xjrcryp: Does someone else influence or set your rate or amount of pay at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 30
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3254 6650
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 0 1
0 NO 211 107 318
1 YES 826 724 1550

xjrcrs1: Do you supervise the work of others that is, what they produce and how much at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 31
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3252 6648
-2 3 256 259
0 NO 409 540 949
1 YES 629 293 922

xjrcrs2: Do you decide what others do and how they do it at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 31a
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3255 6651
-2 412 796 1208
0 NO 77 64 141
1 YES 552 226 778

xjrcrs3: Do you decide what others do, but they decide how to do it at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 31b
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3254 6650
-2 964 1022 1986
0 NO 21 31 52
1 YES 56 34 90

xjrcrs4: Does someone else supervise your work that is, what you produces or how much at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 32
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3395 3252 6647
-2 3 256 259
0 NO 303 199 502
1 YES 736 634 1370

xjrcrs5: Does someone else decide both what you do and how you do it at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 32a
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3253 6649
-2 306 455 761
0 NO 420 289 709
1 YES 315 344 659

xjrcrs6: Does someone else decides what you do, but you decide how to do it at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 32b
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3397 3253 6650
-2 621 799 1420
0 NO 59 44 103
1 YES 360 245 605

xjrcrs7: Does your supervisor exercise little or no control over your work at current/last job?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 32c
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3397 3254 6651
-2 621 799 1420
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 0 1
0 NO 121 83 204
1 YES 297 205 502

xjbcrsa: How satisfied are you with your current/last job as a whole?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 33
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3396 3252 6648
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 4 0 4
1 Very dissatisfied 18 26 44
2 Somewhat dissatisfied 76 82 158
3 Fairly satisfied 388 312 700
4 Very satisfied 552 413 965

xjxcrh2: How many hours a week does sibling respondent usually work at all jobs?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 34
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3394 3254 6648
-2 3 256 259
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 1 2
02 - 69 Two to sixty-nine or more hours 1039 830 1869

xwrwoud: If you didn't have to work to make a living would you want to work anyway?

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 44
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3394 3252 6646
-1 DON'T KNOW 18 20 38
1 YES 942 778 1720
2 Depends 12 41 53
3 NO 71 182 253
4 Already doesn't have to work 0 68 68

xwrywr1: First reason sibling respondent would want to work or not want to work if sibling respondent didn't have to.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 44a
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3394 3252 6646
-2 18 88 106
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 0 1
0 Miscellaneous reasons for wanting to keep on working POSITIVE SATISFACTION IN WORKING 27 25 52
11 Economic factors-- money, extra money, retirement benefits, pension 6 14 20
21 Achievement-- related ego satisfactions, working gives a feeling of accomplishment, likes complexity of work (figuring out things, handling problems); likes responsibility of working, chance to make decisions, likes chance to use abilities, skills, talents, intelligence, likes the reward and recognition of doing good work 145 102 247
22 Affiliation-- related ego satisfactions, likes the chance of being with people, friendships on the job 11 125 136
23 Influence-- related ego satisfactions, likes the independence that comes from working, likes the leadership possibilities, prestige, likes the chance to teach others 4 1 5
24 Curiosity-- related ego satisfactions, likes the novelty, new things happening, chance to learn new things, work is more interesting, less routine 12 34 46
25 Usefulness of work-- work makes you feel useful 9 3 12
26 Likes to work (general, not ascertained why) 64 70 134
27 Likes particular work he/she is doing (general, not ascertained why) 18 43 61
28 Other ego satisfactions from work WORK AS HABIT, OBLIGATION, AND AVOIDANCE OF NEGATIVE STATES: WORK AS A HABIT 1 1 2
31 Work is the only way of life respondent knows-- has always worked, wouldn't know any other way of life 9 13 22
32 Other ways in which respondent views work as habit WORK IS THE PROPER STATE OF THINGS, MORAL, THE RIGHT THING TO DO 2 0 2
41 Work is basis for identity, self-respect-- would lose self respect if didn't work, a man is nothing if he doesn't work 5 0 5
42 Work prevents feelings of uselessness-- have to work or will feel useless 1 0 1
43 Working keeps you healthy-- feel better when you work 22 9 31
44 Working prevents immoral state-- working keeps you out of trouble drinking, other vices, (idle hands make work for the devil) 9 0 9
45 Obligation, duty to work-- it's your duty to work, everyone should work, every man should work, it's the right thing to do 4 0 4
46 It's good to work (not ascertained why) 1 2 3
47 Other comments indicating respondent feels that work is proper, moral, right WORK PREVENTS NEGATIVE STATES (NONMORAL) 8 0 8
51 Emotional upset if didn't work-- would go crazy if didn't work, I wouldn't know what to do with myself 48 13 61
52 Work fills in otherwise empty time-- I'd be bored if I didn't work, I don't know what else to do, I have nothing else I want to do, It keeps me occupied, I like to keep busy 538 206 744
55 Work is better than housework-- keeping house 0 19 19
56 Work is better than being with family, spouse, children, parents 0 5 5
57 Work is better than staying at home 1 94 95
58 Work prevents other negative states REASONS FOR NOT WORKING 0 1 1
60 Other reasons for not working 9 9 18
61 Want to work, but health won't permit it 1 3 4
62 Want to work, but family considerations won't permit it (still have small children) 0 27 27
63 Would rather be with family (home husband) than working 1 128 129
64 Would rather do volunteer or community service work 0 8 8
65 Would rather travel than work 7 2 9
66 Would rather pursue a hobby (golf, fish, hunt, music, art, etc.) than work 28 14 42
67 Would rather have leisure time, rest than work 10 6 16
68 Would rather be free than work 18 6 24
69 Unqualified 1 0 1
71 Don't want to take a job from someone who needs it 1 4 5
90 Depends 3 14 17

xwrywr2: Second reason sibling respondent would want to work or not want to work if sibling respondent didn't have to.

Data source: Sibling Respondent      Collected in: 1977      Mode: phone
Source variables: 44a
Revisions: Updated 3/97     

Frequencies
Value Label Male Female Total
-3 NOT ASCERTAINED OR NONSAMPLE 3394 3252 6646
-2 743 720 1463
-1 DON'T KNOW 1 0 1
0 Miscellaneous reasons for wanting to keep on working POSITIVE SATISFACTION IN WORKING 7 3 10
11 Economic factors -- money, extra money, retirement benefits, pension 2 27 29
21 Achievement-related ego satisfactions, working gives a feeling of accomplishment, likes complexity of work (figuring out things, handling problems); likes responsibility of working, chance to make decisions, likes chance to use abilities, skills, talents, intelligence, likes the reward and recognition of doing good work 78 38 116
22 Affiliation -- related ego satisfactions, likes the chance of being with people, friendships on the job 29 86 115
23 Influence -- related ego satisfactions, likes the independence that comes from working, likes the leadership possibilities, prestige, likes the chance to teach others 2 11 13
24 Curiosity -- related ego satisfactions, likes the novelty, new things happening, chance to learn new things, work is more interesting, less routine 7 26 33
25 Usefulness of work -- work makes you feel useful 7 1 8
26 Likes to work (general, not ascertained why) 32 23 55
27 Likes particular work he/she is doing (general, not ascertained why) 8 10 18
28 Other ego satisfactions from work WORK AS HABIT, OBLIGATION, AND AVOIDANCE OF NEGATIVE STATES: WORK AS A HABIT 0 1 1
31 Work is the only way of life respondent knows -- has always worked, wouldn't know any other way of life 6 3 9
32 Other ways in which respondent views work as habit WORK IS THE PROPER STATE OF THINGS, MORAL, THE RIGHT THING TO DO 1 0 1
41 Work is basis for identity, self-respect -- would lose self respect if didn't work, a man is nothing if he doesn't work 2 0 2
43 Working keeps you healthy -- feel better when you work 14 6 20
44 Working prevents immoral state -- working keeps you out of trouble drinking, other vices, (idle hands make work for the devil) 2 1 3
45 Obligation, duty to work -- it's your duty to work, everyone should work, every man should work, it's the right thing to do 3 1 4
47 Other comments indicating respondent feels that work is proper, moral, right WORK PREVENTS NEGATIVE STATES (NONMORAL) 3 0 3
51 Emotional upset if didn't work -- would go crazy if didn't work, I wouldn't know what to do with myself 15 6 21
52 Work fills in otherwise empty time -- I'd be bored if I didn't work, I don't know what else to do, I have nothing else I want to do, It keeps me occupied, I like to keep busy 68 45 113
55 Work is better than housework -- keeping house 0 11 11
56 Work is better than being with family, spouse, children, parents 0 2 2
57 Work is better than staying at home 2 36 38
58 Work prevents other negative states REASONS FOR NOT WORKING 1 1 2
60 Other reasons for not working 0 3 3
61 Want to work, but health won't permit it 2 0 2
62 Want to work, but family considerations won't permit it (still have small children) 0 2 2
63 Would rather be with family (home husband) than working 0 5 5
64 Would rather do volunteer or community service work 0 5 5
65 Would rather travel than work 2 0 2
66 Would rather pursue a hobby (golf, fish, hunt, music, art, etc.) than work 1 6 7
67 Would rather have leisure time, rest than work 1 3 4
68 Would rather be free than work 3 5 8
71 Don't want to take a job from someone who needs it 0 1 1
90 Depends 1 1 2

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