Current Awareness in Aging Research (CAAR) Report #484 -- April 23, 2009.

CAAR (Current Awareness in Aging Research) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography of Health and Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


I. Data:

1. HEALTH AND RETIREMENT SURVEY: The University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research HRS announced on Apr. 22, 2009: "Prospective Social Security Wealth Measures of Pre-Retirees (Version 1.0)". For more information see:

Data Access:


2. US CENTERS FOR MEDICARE AND MEDICAID SERVICES STATISTICAL SUPPLEMENT UPDATES: "Medicare Hospital Outpatient Services (Tables 10.1-10.5)" and "Medicare Physician Services (Tables 9.1-9.9)" (.pdf and .zip compressed Microsoft Excel and .pdf format) have been updated through 2008.


3. UNITED NATIONS WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION WHO MORTALITY DATABASE UPDATE: The following WMD files were updated on Apr. 21, 2009: "Documentation (.zip compressed Microsoft Word format); "Availability" (.zip compressed comma separated values [.csv] format); "Country Codes" (.zip compressed comma separated values [.csv] format); "Notes" (.zip compressed comma separated values [.csv] format); "Populations and Live Birth" (.zip compressed comma separated values [.csv] format); "Mortality, ICD-9 (.zip compressed ASCII text format); and Mortality, ICD-10 (.zip compressed ASCII text format).

Links to data are at the bottom of the page.


4. UK DATA ARCHIVE (ESSEX UNIVERSITY, COLCHESTER, UK): The UK Data Archive has recently added the following datasets to its holdings. Note: There maybe charges or licensing requirements on holdings of the UK Data Archive. For more information see:

SN 6133 -United Kingdom Study of Abuse and Neglect of Older People, 2006


II. Reports and articles:

5. US NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS REPORT: "Deaths: Final Data for 2006," by Melonie Heron, Donna L. Hoyert, Sherry L. Murphy, Jiaquan Xu, Kenneth D. Kochanek, and Betzaida Tejada-Vera (National Vital Statistics Report Vol. 57, No. 14, April 2009, .pdf format, 80p.).


6. US SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION OFFICE OF POLICY PERIODICAL: SSI (Supplemental Security Income) Monthly Statistics, March 2009 (April 2009, HTML and .pdf format).



A. "Nursing Home Corporations Under Quality of Care Corporate Integrity Agreements" (OEI-06-06-00570, April 2009, .pdf format, 43p.).


OIG found that all 15 corporations included in this review enhanced quality of care structures and processes while under their Corporate Integrity Agreements (CIA) and cited positive effects of the CIA. All 15 corporations had written policies and procedures regarding quality of care, codes of conduct, and training required by their CIAs; monitored their quality of care using standardized data, internal self-assessment tools, and by tracking complaints; and created or expanded their compliance infrastructures to integrate quality of care. This review included all nursing homes that were placed under CIAs between June 2000 and December 2005.

Under quality of care CIAs, nursing home corporations with identified quality of care problems consent to certain requirements in exchange for an agreement by the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General (OIG) not to exclude them from participation in Federal health care programs. A nursing home quality of care CIA is a contract that is typically entered into for 3 to 5 years and requires implementation of quality of care structures and processes and monitoring by an independent quality monitor.

Despite some initial resistance from 3 corporations, OIG found that all 15 corporations were ultimately responsive to quality monitors' guidance and corporate representatives reported that they valued the input. OIG's review of quality monitoring reports and corporate annual reports confirmed the monitors' opinions that the 15 corporations were largely responsive to their guidance.Corporate representatives cited several benefits of quality monitoring, e.g., monitors offered new ideas and fresh ways of thinking about quality of care structures and processes.

Representatives of all 15 corporations described challenges they encountered when implementing the CIA requirements. Corporations with multiple nursing homes encountered challenges to ensuring consistency in quality of care systems across all layers of their organizations and across geographic regions. For example, an analysis of Quality Assessment and Assurance (QAA) committee minutes indicated that nursing homes' implementation of quality of care systems was inconsistent. Other challenges involved organizational disruptions, such as sales and purchases of nursing homes or corporate level reorganizations; staff resistance to implementation; use of staff time to implement the CIA requirements; and financial costs associated with CIAs.

Based on these findings, areas that OIG will explore for its oversight of future CIAs include: responding swiftly to noncompliant corporations and those that fail to address quality problems; including in the CIAs specific requirements for documentation of nursing home QAA activities; and sharing lessons learned by corporations and quality monitors with other corporations placed under subsequent CIAs.

B. "Comparison of Third-Quarter 2008 Average Sales Prices and Average Manufacturer Prices: Impact on Medicare Reimbursement for First Quarter 2009" (OEI-03-09-00150, April 2009, .pdf format, 20p.).


Using a revised payment methodology recently implemented by CMS, we identified a total of 36 Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes with average sales prices (ASP) that exceeded average manufacturer prices (AMP) by at least 5 percent in the third quarter of 2008. If reimbursement amounts for these 36 codes had been based on 103 percent of the AMPs, Medicare expenditures would have been reduced by $9.4 million during the first quarter of 2009. Pursuant to section 1847A(d)(3) of the Social Security Act (the Act), OIG must notify the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) if the ASP for a particular drug exceeds the drug's AMP by a threshold of 5 percent. If that threshold is met, section 1847A(d)(3) of the Act authorizes the Secretary to disregard the ASP for that drug and substitute the payment amount for the drug code with the lesser of the widely available market price for the drug (if any) or 103 percent of the AMP. This is OIG's 11th report comparing ASPs to AMPs; however, CMS has yet to make any changes to reimbursement as a result of OIG's findings.

Of the 36 HCPCS codes that met the threshold for price adjustment, 15 had AMP data for every drug product that CMS used to establish reimbursement amounts. Twelve of the fifteen HCPCS codes were previously eligible for price adjustment under the revised payment methodology, with two codes meeting the 5-percent threshold in each of the past seven quarters, dating back to the first quarter of 2007. The remaining 21 of 36 HCPCS codes also met the 5-percent threshold in the third quarter of 2008 but did not have AMP data for every drug product that CMS used when calculating reimbursement.

We could not compare ASPs and AMPs for 67 HCPCS codes because AMP data were not submitted for any of the drug products that CMS used to calculate reimbursement. Manufacturers for almost 30 percent of these drug products had Medicaid drug rebate agreements and were therefore generally required to submit AMPs. OIG will continue to work with CMS to evaluate and pursue appropriate actions against manufacturers that fail to submit required data.

C. "Potential Improper Medicaid Payments for Outpatient Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Services for Dual-Eligible Beneficiaries" (OEI-04-07-00340, April 2009, .pdf format, 5p.).


We determined that Medicaid programs in 8 of 11 selected States spent a total of $1.3 million in potential improper payments for clinical diagnostic laboratory services that were provided on an assignment-related basis to dual eligibles in FY 2005 and 2006.Dual eligibles are beneficiaries who are enrolled in Medicare Part A and/or Part B and also entitled to some Medicaid benefits.Over half of the potential improper payments we identified corresponded to five Current Procedural Terminology codes.One of these codes accounted for almost 30 percent of the potential improper payments we identified. State Medicaid programs should not pay for any portion of outpatient clinical diagnostic laboratory services that were provided on an assignment-related basis to dual eligibles who are enrolled in Medicare Part B. This memorandum has no recommendations. Our results demonstrate that opportunities exist to educate State Medicaid programs that they should not pay for any portion of outpatient clinical diagnostic laboratory services provided to dual-eligible beneficiaries.CMS did not have any comments on this memorandum.


8. US CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE REPORT: "Retirement Savings and Household Wealth in 2007," by Patrick Purcell (RL30922, April 2009, .pdf format, 16p.).



A. "Researchers Discover Potential Functional Role of Genetic Variation in Prostate Cancer Risk" (Apr. 20, 2009).

B. "Connections" (Spring 2009, Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center).


10. US GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE REPORT: "Office of Personnel Management: Retirement Modernization Planning and Management Shortcomings Need to Be Addressed" (GAO-09-529, April 2009, HTML and .pdf format, 39p.).


11. US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PRESS RELEASE: "EPA Recognizes Two Universities for Building Healthier Communities for the Aging" (Apr. 14, 2009).


12. AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND AGEING NEWS RELEASE: "Transition Care: Helping Older Western Australians Regain Their Independence" (Apr. 22, 2009, HTML and .pdf format, 2p.).


13. SENATE OF CANADA SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON AGING REPORT: "Canada's Aging Population: Seizing the Opportunity," (April 2009, .pdf format, 233p.).


14. IRELAND HEALTH SERVICE EXECUTIVE/FEIDHMEANNACHT NA SEIRBHISE SLAINTE REPORT: "Open Your Eyes: HSE Elder Abuse Service Developments 2008" (April 2009, .pdf format, 95p.).

Click on "Elder Abuse Research Report" for link to full text.


15. JAPAN STATISTICS BUREAU REPORT: "Current Population Estimates as of October 1, 2008" (April 2009, HTML and Microsoft Excel format).


16. STATISTICS NETHERLANDS WEB MAGAZINE ARTICLE: "Inheritance tax revenues under pressure," by Laurens Cazander (Apr. 21, 2009).


17. AARP Research Reports:

A. "Going From Good to Great: A Livable Communities Survey in Westchester County, New York," by Brittne M. Nelson and Terri Guengerich (April 2009, .pdf format, 45p.).

B. "An Illustrative Analysis of Medicare Options Compare: Whats There and Whats Not?" by Marsha Gold (April 2009, .pdf format, 16p.).

C. "Employment Support for the Transition to Retirement: Can a New Program Help Older Workers Continue to Work and Protect Those Who Cannot?" by David C. Stapleton (April 2009, .pdf format, 39p.).



A. "Engaging the 21st Century Multi-Generational Workforce," by Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes and Christina Matz-Costa (IB#20, April 2009, .pdf format, 33p.).

Click on title in second paragraph of news release for link to full text.

B. "When is a Person Too Young or Too Old to Work? Cultural Variations in Europe," by Stephen Sweet (Global Issue Brief No. 2, February 2009, .pdf format, 14p.).

C. "The Diverse Positions of French Employers on Age Management: The ANACTs 10,000-company Survey," by Melanie Burlet (Global Issue Brief No. 3, February 2009, .pdf format, 12p.).

D. "Factors Affecting Older Women in the Work Force" (Fact Sheet 22, March 2009, .pdf format, 2p.).

E. "Japan Employer Perspectives," by Masa Higo and Atsuhiro Yamada (Mind the Gap, April 2009, .pdf format, 25p.).


19. CENTER ON BUDGET AND POLICY PRIORITIES REPORT: "Social Security Does Not Face a Near-Term "Reckoning": Alarmists Claims Are Unjustified, But Action Is Needed to Restore Long-Term Solvency," by Kathy Ruffing and Paul N. Van de Water (April 2009, .pdf and HTML format, 4p.).

More information about CBPP:


20. GRANDPARENTS.COM REPORT: "The Grandparent Economy: A Study of the Population, Spending Habits and Economic Impact of Grandparents in the United States," by Peter Francese (April 2009, .pdf format, 22p.).

More information about


21. METLIFE MATURE MARKET INSTITUTE REPORT: "Engaging the 21st Century Multi-Generational Workforce" (March 2009, .pdf format, 30p.).

Workbook (.pdf format, 46p.):

Case Studies (.pdf format, 16p.):

Employer Strategies (.pdf format, 4p.).


22. NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH PERIODICAL: Bulletin on Aging and Health(2009, No. 1, HTML and .pdf format, 6p.).


23. URBAN INSTITUTE REPORT: "A New Minimum Benefit for Low Lifetime Earners," by Melissa Favreault (March 2009, .pdf format, 29p.).


24. NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC MODELLING [UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA, AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA] RESEARCH REPORT: "Reform of the Australian Retirement Income System," by Simon Kelly (February 2009, .pdf format, 32p.).


25. KOREA INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC POLICY REPORT: "Development Cooperation for Social Safety Nets in East and Southeast Asia," by Kye Woo Lee (March 2009, .pdf format, 60p.). Part 1 of Chapter 3: "Demographic Transition in Developing Countries" is titled "Global Ageing Trend."

Click on "PDF" for link to full text.

More information about KIEP:


26. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ARTICLE ABSTRACT : "Fibrillar amyloid-{beta} burden in cognitively normal people at 3 levels of genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease," by Eric M. Reiman, Kewei Chen, Xiaofen Liu, Daniel Bandy, Meixiang Yu, Wendy Lee, Napatkamon Ayutyanont, Jennifer Keppler, Stephanie A. Reeder, Jessica B.S. Langbaum, Gene E. Alexander, William E. Klunk, Chester A. Mathis, Julie C. Price, Howard J. Aizenstein, Steven T. DeKosky, and Richard J. Caselli (Vol. 106, No. 16, Apr. 21, 2009, HTML and .pdf format, p.6820-6825). This article is available free of charge.


27. NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE ARTICLE: "Apolipoprotein E and its receptors in Alzheimer's disease: pathways, pathogenesis and therapy," by Guojun Bu (Vol. 10, No. 5, May 2009, p. 333-344).


28. SCIENCE ARTICLE ABSTRACT: "Optical Deconstruction of Parkinsonian Neural Circuitry," by Viviana Gradinaru, Murtaza Mogri, Kimberly R. Thompson, Jaimie M. Henderson, and Karl Deisseroth (Vol. 324, No. 5925, Apr. 17, 2009, p. 354-359).



A. "Continuity of Outpatient and Inpatient Care by Primary Care Physicians for Hospitalized Older Adults," by Gulshan Sharma, Kathlyn E. Fletcher, Dong Zhang, Yong-Fang Kuo, Jean L. Freeman, James S. Goodwin (Vol. 301, No. 16, Apr. 22/29, 2009, p. 1671-1680).

B. Clinical Neurology of the Older Adult, edited by Joseph I. Sirven and Barbara L. Malamut, reviewed by Tobias Kurth (Vol. 301, No. 16, Apr. 22/29, 2009, p. 1718-1719).



A. "Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 year follow-up of population based cohort," by Liisa Byberg, Hakan Melhus, Rolf Gedeborg, Johan Sundstrom, Anders Ahlbom, Bjorn Zethelius, Lars G Berglund, Alicja Wolk, and Karl Michaelsson (BMJ 2009;338:b688, April 18, 2009).

B. "Sociodemographic variations in the contribution of secondary drug prevention to stroke survival at middle and older ages: cohort study," by Rosalind Raine, Wun Wong, Gareth Ambler, Sarah Hardoon, Irene Petersen, Richard Morris, Mel Bartley, and David Blane (BMJ 2009;338:b1279, Apr. 16, 2009).

C. "Surgical treatments for men with benign prostatic enlargement: cost effectiveness study," by Nigel Armstrong, Luke Vale, Mark Deverill, Ghulam Nabi, Samuel McClinton, James N'Dow, and Robert Pickard (BMJ 2009;338:b1288, Apr. 16, 2009).


31. LANCET ARTICLE: Note: Lancet requires free registration before providing content. "Effects of a polypill (Polycap) on risk factors in middle-aged individuals without cardiovascular disease (TIPS): a phase II, double-blind, randomised trial," The Indian Polycap Study (TIPS) ((Vol. 373, No. 9672, Apr. 18, 2009, HTML and .pdf format, p. 1341- 1351). This article is available free of charge.


III. Working Papers:

32. LUXEMBOURG WEALTH STUDY: "Older or Wealthier? The Impact of Age Adjustments on the Wealth Inequality Ranking of Countries," by Ingvild Almas and Magne Mogstad (WP No. 9, March 2009, .pdf format, 39p.).


Differences in individual wealth holdings are widely viewed as a driving force of economic inequality. However, as this finding relies on cross-section data, we may confuse older with wealthier. We propose a new method to adjust for age effects in cross-sections, which eliminates transitory wealth inequality due to age, yet preserves inequality arising from other factors. This new method is superior to existing methods, like the much used Paglin-Gini, which is shown to have several problems. A new cross-country comparable database reveals that the choice of method is empirically important: Existing methods yield erroneous wealth inequality rankings of countries.


33. CENTER FOR ECONOMIC STUDIES/Ifo INSTITUTE FOR ECONOMIC RESEARCH (CESifo) [UNIVERSITY OF BONN, GERMANY]: "Should we Subsidize Longevity?" by Marie-Louise Leroux, Pierre Pestieau, and Gregory Ponthiere (WP 2614, April 2009, .pdf format, 23p.). Links to an abstract and full text are available at:



A. "Private pensions and policy responses to the financial and economic crisis, by Pablo Antolin and Fiona Stewart (Working Papers on Insurance and Private Pensions No. 36, April 2009, .pdf format, 32p.). Links to an abstract and full text are available at:,3425,en_2649_34853_42601324_119684_1_1_1,00.html

B. "Defined-Contribution (DC) arrangements in Anglo-Saxon countries," by John Ashcroft (Working Papers on Insurance and Private Pensions No. 35, March 2009, .pdf format, 57p.). Links to an abstract and full text are available at:,3425,en_2649_34853_42601250_119684_1_1_1,00.html


IV. Journal Tables of Contents (check your library for availability):

35. Age and Ageing (Vol. 38, No. 3, May 2009). Note: Full text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for availability of this database and issue.

36. American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias (Vol. 24, No. 2, April/May 2009).

37. American Journal of Epidemiology (Vol. 169, No. 9, May 1, 2009).

38. Dementia (Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2009).

39. Journal of Aging Studies (Vol. 23, No. 2, April 2009).


40. AMEDEO MEDICAL LITERATURE: Note: "AMEDEO has been created to serve the needs of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrators, other members of the health professions, and patients and their friends. They can easily access timely, relevant information within their respective fields... All AMEDEO services are free of charge. This policy was made possible thanks to generous unrestricted educational grants provided by AMGEN, Berlex, Eisai, Glaxo Wellcome, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Schering AG."

A. Osteoporosis: Literature for the week of Apr. 24, 2009:

B. Alzheimer's Disease: Literature for the week of Apr. 24, 2009:

C. Parkinson's Disease: Literature for the week of Apr. 24, 2009:

D. Prostate Cancer: Literature for the week of Apr. 24, 2009:

E. Stem Cell Research: Literature for the week of Apr. 24, 2009:

F. Ophthalmology: Literature for the week of Apr. 24, 2009:

AMEDEO Literature Guide:


V. Funding Opportunities:


A. "Renal Function and Chronic Kidney Disease in Aging (R01)" (PA-09-165, Apr. 17, 2009National Institute on Aging in conjunction with National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases). For more information see:

B. "Renal Function and Chronic Kidney Disease in Aging (R21)" (PA-09-166, Apr. 17, 2009, National Institute on Aging). For more information see:


42. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON AGING: "Research Intern, Senior Economic Security Initiative."

About the National Council on Aging (NCOA):

The National Council on Aging (NCOA) is a nonprofit service and advocacy organization headquartered in Washington, DC. NCOA is a national voice for older Americans--especially those who are vulnerable and disadvantaged--and the community organizations that serve them. It brings together nonprofit organizations, businesses, and government to develop creative solutions that improve the lives of all older adults. NCOA works with thousands of organizations across the country to help seniors find jobs and benefits, improve their health, live independently, and remain active in their communities. For more information, visit

The National Council on Agings (NCOA) Senior Economic Security Initiative:

Many older adults are hurting badly as a result of the economic downturn, described by some as the worst since the Great Depression. Prior to the current crisis, there were 32.5 million older adults with incomes <200% of the federal poverty level. Now even more older adults are suffering from a lack of income to sustain their basic needs. Many traditionally poor and newly economically disadvantaged older adults are encountering multiple challenges getting their health, housing, employment and/or indebtedness needs met, and lack knowledge of and/or access to benefits and financial supports that could alleviate their suffering. Through NCOAs Senior Economic Security Initiative, efforts are underway to develop, implement and evaluative innovative community-based responses to address the needs of economically disadvantaged seniors. Learnings from these demonstration sites will inform recommendations for policy changes and scaling strategies on a nationwide basis.


This position reports directly to the Deputy Director of the Senior Economic Security Initiative and is responsible for the development of a research report on the demography of aging, focusing on economically disadvantaged seniors.

Project Activities:

Develop comprehensive profile of the economically disadvantaged senior population by: age group, gender, race and ethnicity, living arrangement, income and asset levels, health status, educational attainment, health insurance coverage status, cognitive and functional limitations, health and long-term care expenses, and work status.

Author research report that encompasses data collected from government data sources, literature reviews and phone follow-up that will provide a clear understanding of the economically disadvantaged senior population and their needs.

Institute a repository of on-line repository of resources (web sites, reports, key contacts) relevant to economic security for older adults.

Education and Skills

Bachelor of Arts with graduate work in demography

Strong organizational and analytical skills

Knowledge of large databases (e.g., Census)

Proficient use of Microsoft Office suite

Research and report writing experience


The Research Intern can work at NCOAs Washington, DC-based headquarters or from a remote location and must have ongoing communication with the Deputy Director of the Senior Economic Security Initiative. The internship will span from May-July 2009, but is negotiable based upon graduate school schedules. A modest stipend will be provided for this work.

Persons interested in applying for this position should submit a cover letter, resume and short writing sample (5-7 pages maximum) directly to Wanda Moore Johnson, Director for Human Resources; 1901 L Street N.W., 4th Floor; Washington, DC 20036 or email it to:


VI. Legislation Information Updates:

43. US HOUSE COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND LABOR HEARING TESTIMONY: "401(k) Fair Disclosure for Retirement Security Act of 2009," a hearing held Apr. 22, 2009 (.pdf format).


44. US SENATE COMMITTEE ON HOMELAND SECURITY AND GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS, SUBCOMMITTEE ON FEDERAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, GOVERNMENT INFORMATION, FEDERAL SERVICES, AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY VIDEO HEARING TRANSCRIPT: "Eliminating Waste and Fraud in Medicare and Medicaid," a hearing held Apr. 22, 2009 (video software needed to watch this hearing, running time: 1 hour, 57 minutes, 43 seconds). At present no print testimony transcripts are available.

Click on the right arrow below the video window to activate the video transcript.


VII. Websites of Interest:

45. US CENTERS FOR MEDICARE AND MEDICAID SERVICES MEDICARE.GOV UPDATES. The following pages were updated on Apr. 13 and Apr. 22, 2009: "Physician and Other Healthcare Professional Directory"; "Hospital Compare"; "Supplier Directory"; Nursing Home Compare"; "Helpful Contacts"; "Medicare Options Compare"; and "Medicare Prescription Drug Plan Finder."


46. EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY AND RESEARCH: "Monitoring RIS." "In 2008, the European Centres MA:IMI project has entered its second phase. The period of the second review and appraisal cycle of the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA) and the Regional Implementation Strategy (RIS) (2008-2012) will undoubtedly be an important and critical one, as the challenges facing ageing societies are further pronounced due to the demographic dividend now ending in many UN-ECE countries. A last window of opportunity to implement at least the core measures to live up to the goals, objectives and ten commitments formulated in Madrid and Berlin, in 2002, and reconfirmed in Leon in 2007, will open till around 2012."


It is not by muscle, speed, or physical dexterity that great things are achieved, but by reflection, force of character, and judgement; and in these qualities old age is usually not only not poorer, but is even richer

Cicero--106-43 B.C.


Jack Solock
Director--Data and Information Services Center
Social Sciences Research Services
3313 Social Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706