Current Awareness in Aging Research (CAAR) Report #397--August 3, 2007

CAAR (Current Awareness in Aging Research) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography of Health and Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


I. Data:

1. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY: "The WLS 12.10 data set is now available. This new release includes data from the 2004-2007 selected sibling interviews; as well as corrections to earlier data." (July 31, 2007). For more information see:


2. HUMAN MORTALITY DATABASE: Note: HMD requires free registration before providing data. The following updates have been made to the HMD:

- 07/31/2007 Data for Japan updated through 2005
- 07/30/2007 Data for Taiwan updated through 2005
- 07/30/2007 Data for the United States were revised; birth counts for 1933-1959 were replaced with counts that have been adjusted for under-registration.

Data availability:

Data access:


3. UK DATA ARCHIVE (ESSEX UNIVERSITY, COLCHESTER, UK): : The UK Data Archive has recently released a study that may be of interest to aging researchers. Note: There maybe charges or licensing requirements on holdings of the UK Data Archive. For more information see:

SN 5675 - Health Survey for England, 2005


4. MEDICAL EXPENDITURE PANEL SURVEY: US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's MEPS released the following dataset (data in .zip or self decompressing [.exe] ASCII or SAS transport format, documentation in HTML and .pdf format, with SAS and SPSS programming statements in ASCII format):

"MEPS HC-093: 2006 P10R3/P11R1 Population Characteristics."


II. Reports and articles:

5. NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING REPORT: "2005-2006 Progress Report on Alzheimer's Disease: Journey to Discovery," by Anne Brown Rodgers (July 2007, .pdf and HTML format, 64p.).


6. CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE REPORT: "The Impact of Medicare's Payment Rates on the Volume of Services Provided by Skilled Nursing Facilities," (July 2007, .pdf format, 21p.).



A. "Medicare: Geographic Areas Used to Adjust Physician Payments for Variation in Practice Costs Should Be Revised," (GAO-07-466, June 2007, .pdf format, 74p.).

B. "Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board: Many Responsibilities and Investment Policies Set by Congress," (GAO-07-611, June 2007, .pdf format, 27p.).

C. "Medicare Advantage: Required Audits of Limited Value," (GAO-07-945, July 2007, .pdf format, 44p.)

Note: This is a temporary address. GAO reports are available at:


8. CENSUS BUREAU REPORT: "The Geographic Distribution and Characteristics of Older Workers in Maine: 2004," by Cynthia Taeuber and Matthew R. Graham (LED-OW2007-ME, July 2007, .pdf format, 12p.).



A. "Medicare's Program Safeguard Contractors: Activities To Detect and Deter Fraud and Abuse," (OEI-03-06-00010, July 2007, .pdf format, 18p.).


OIG found program safeguard contractors (PSC) differed substantially in the number of new investigations and case referrals to law enforcement; some had minimal activity in these primary workload categories.  Neither the size of a PSC's budget nor its oversight responsibility (dollar amount of Medicare paid claims) was strongly correlated with the number of new investigations nor the number of new case referrals produced in 2005.  OIG also found that most PSCs had minimal results from proactive data analysis.  In addition, OIG found no consistency across PSCs regarding the level of detail about proactive data analysis included in the monthly status reports. 

OIG recommended that CMS review PSCs with especially low volumes of activity in investigations and case referrals for Medicare Parts A and B.  In addition, CMS should require PSCs to provide more detailed explanations of their investigations, case referrals to law enforcement, and proactive data analysis activities in their monthly reports. CMS concurred in part with our first recommendation.  CMS stated that currently it is difficult to compare PSCs.  However, CMS has begun implementing a new contracting strategy of aligning PSC jurisdictions with jurisdictions of claims processing contractors and believes this will make it easier to compare PSCs in the future.  CMS also noted that it has begun allocating funds to PSCs based on PSC performance, workload, and Medicare vulnerabilities.  CMS concurred with our second recommendation and stated it has revised the monthly reporting system to collect more information and to improve reporting consistency across PSCs.

B. "Payments for Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies Made on Behalf of Beneficiaries in Skilled Nursing Facility Stays Covered Under Medicare Part A," (A-01-05-00511, June 2007, .pdf format, 28p.).


For calendar years (CY) 1999-2002, before Common Working File edits were fully operational, Medicare Part B made $100.8 million in potential overpayments to suppliers of durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) on behalf of beneficiaries in Part A-covered skilled nursing facility stays.  For CY 2003, after the edits were fully operational, OIG's computer match identified potential DMEPOS overpayments valued at $15.4 million.  A statistical sample showed that the durable medical equipment regional carriers (DMERC) had not recovered approximately 69 percent of these overpayments.  As a result, OIG estimated that the DMERCs had not recovered $11.2 million of the $15.4 million in potential CY 2003 overpayments.

OIG recommended that CMS (1) direct the DMERCs to review the $100.8 million in potential overpayments for CYs 1999-2002 and make appropriate recoveries, (2) direct the DMERCs to initiate recovery of the estimated $11.2 million in CY 2003 overpayments, and (3) ensure that all DMERCs have established proper controls to recover overpayments that the Common Working File edits identify.  CMS concurred with the recommendations.

C. "Comparison of Third-Quarter 2006 Average Sales Prices to Average Manufacturer Prices: Impact on Medicare Reimbursement for First Quarter 2007," (OEI-03-07-00140, July 2007, .pdf format, 18p.).


Pursuant to section 1847A(d)(3) of the Social Security Act (the Act), OIG must notify the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (the Secretary) if the average sales price (ASP) for a particular drug exceeds the drug's average manufacturer price (AMP) by a threshold of 5 percent. If that threshold is met, section 1847A(d)(3) of the Act grants the Secretary authority to disregard the ASP pricing methodology for that drug and substitute the payment amount for the drug code with the lesser of the widely available market price for the drug (if any) or 103 percent of the AMP.

This review is the third such comparison conducted by OIG, and we identified 39 of 326 Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) codes with ASPs that differ from AMPs by at least 5 percent in the third quarter of 2006. Of these 39 codes, 4 have met the threshold for price adjustments in all three of OIG's studies comparing ASPs and AMPs. An additional eight HCPCS codes were also previously eligible for price adjustments as a result of OIG's second report, which used data from the fourth quarter of 2005. If reimbursement amounts for all 39 codes had been based on 103 percent of AMP during the first quarter of 2007, we estimate that Medicare expenditures would have been reduced by $13 million. We recommend that CMS adjust Medicare reimbursement amounts for drugs that meet the 5-percent threshold specified in section 1847A(d)(3) of the Act.

CMS may want to specifically focus on those drugs that, according to the three OIG reports, have ASPs that consistently meet this threshold. In response to our recommendation, CMS expressed a desire to better understand fluctuating differences between ASPs and AMPs, with the intent of developing a process to adjust payment amounts based on the results of OIG's pricing comparisons. However, OIG remains unsure of what, if any, specific steps CMS will take to address OIG's recommendation. OIG continues to believe that the Medicare reimbursement amounts for the 39 codes identified in this report should be adjusted in accordance with section 1847A(d)(3) of the Act.


10. US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION REPORT: "Prescription Drug Spending by Medicare Beneficiaries in Institutional and Residential Settings, 1998-2001," by Linda Simoni-Wastila, Bruce Stuart, and Thomas Shaffer (June 2007, .pdf format, 62p.).



A. "Nursing Homes in Public Health Emergencies : Special Needs and Potential Roles," by Elisabeth D. Root, Jacqueline B. Amozegar, and Shulamit Bernard (AHRQ Publication No. 07-0029-1, May 2007, .pdf format, 50p.).

B. "Emergency Preparedness Atlas : U.S. Nursing Home and Hospital Facilities," (AHRQ Publication No. 07-0029-2, April 2007, .pdf format, 282p.).


12. MEDICAL EXPENDITURE PANEL SURVEY STATISTICAL BRIEF: "The Top Five Outpatient Prescription Drugs Ranked by Total Expense for Children, Adults, and the Elderly, 2004," by Marie N. Stagnitti (Statistical Brief 180, July 2007, .pdf format, 4p.).


13. CENTERS FOR MEDICARE AND MEDICAID SERVICES FINAL DECISION MEMORANDUM: "Decision Memo for Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) for non-renal disease indications (CAG-00383N)," (July 2007).


14. AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND AGEING PRESS RELEASE: "$1.1 million for palliative care research in NSW," (July 27, 2007).



A. "Why Population Aging Matters," (July 2007, HTML format). This is a transcript of an on line discussion with Richard Suzman (Director of the Behavioral and Social Research Program, National Institute on Aging).

B. Today's Research on Aging (Issue 5, August 2007, .pdf format, 5p.). Note: The main article is "Cognitive Aging: Imaging, Emotion, and Memory."


16. AARP REPORT: "401(k) Participants' Awareness and Understanding Of Fees," by S. Kathi Brown (July 2007, .pdf format, 41p.).



A. "401(k) Plan Asset Allocation, Account Balances, and Loan Activity in 2006," by Jack VanDerhei, Sarah Holden, Craig Copeland, and Luis Alonso (EBRI Issue Brief No. 308, August 2007, .pdf format, 40p.).

B. EBRI Notes (Vol. 28, No. 8, August 2007, .pdf format, 12p.). Note: This issue contains two articles: 'Employment Status of Workers Age 55 and Older,' and 'Assets in Qualified Retirement Plans, 1985-2005: Updated'.


18. CENTER FOR RETIREMENT RESEARCH AT BOSTON COLLEGE ISSUE BRIEF: "Is There Really a Retirement Savings Crisis? An NRRI Analysis," by Alicia H. Munnell, Anthony Webb, and Francesca Golub-Sass (IB No. 7-11, August 2007, .pdf format, 9p.).


19. ACADEMY HEALTH REPORT: "Affordable Clustered Housing-Care: A Viable Alternative for Long-Term Care in a Residential Setting?" by Steven Golant (2007, .pdf format, 4p.).


20. ALZHEIMER'S ASSOCIATION ISSUE BRIEF: "Consumer-Directed, Home and Community Services for Adults with Dementia," by Jane Tilly (July 2007, .pdf format, 18p.).


21. DELOITTE CONSULTING REPORT: "Annual 401(k) Benchmarking Survey : 2005/2006 Edition," (July 2007, .pdf format, 35p.).


22. ILCUSA REPORT: "ILC Policy Report" (International Longevity Center, USA, July 2007, .pdf format, 6p.). The ILC Policy Report is "a monthly compilation of longevity news and trends in the U.S. and abroad."


23. MICHIGAN RETIREMENT RESEARCH CENTER NEWSLETTER: (Vol. 8, No. 3, Jul. 2007, HTML and .pdf format, 11p.).



A. "Brain IRS2 Signaling Coordinates Life Span and Nutrient Homeostasis," by Akiko Taguchi, Lynn M. Wartschow, Morris F. White (Vol. 317, No. 5836, July 20, 2007, p. 369-372).

B. "Sirtuin 2 Inhibitors Rescue {alpha}-Synuclein-Mediated Toxicity in Models of Parkinson's Disease," by Tiago Fleming Outeiro, Eirene Kontopoulos, Stephen M. Altmann, Irina Kufareva, Katherine E. Strathearn, Allison M. Amore, Catherine B. Volk, Michele M. Maxwell, Jean-Christophe Rochet, Pamela J. McLean, Anne B. Young, Ruben Abagyan, Mel B. Feany, Bradley T. Hyman, and Aleksey G. Kazantsev (Vol. 317, No. 5836, July 20, 2007, p. 516-519).

C. "Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Identifies Insulin Signaling Targets in C. elegans," by Meng-Qiu Dong, John D. Venable, Nora Au, Tao Xu, Sung Kyu Park, Daniel Cociorva, Jeffrey R. Johnson, Andrew Dillin, and John R. Yates, III (Vol. 317, No. 5838, August 2, 2007, p. 660-663).



A. "Innate immunity and transcription of MGAT-III and Toll-like receptors in Alzheimer's disease patients are improved by bisdemethoxycurcumin," by Milan Fiala, Philip T. Liu, Araceli Espinosa-Jeffrey, Mark J. Rosenthal, George Bernard, John M. Ringman, James Sayre, Laura Zhang, Justin Zaghi, Sheila Dejbakhsh, Ben Chiang, James Hui, Michelle Mahanian, Anita Baghaee, Pamela Hong, and John Cashman (Vol. 104, No. 31, July 31, 2007, p. 12849-12854).

B. "Modulation of human neural stem cell differentiation in Alzheimer (APP23) transgenic mice by phenserine," by Amelia Marutle, Masao Ohmitsu, Mats Nilbratt, Nigel H. Greig, Agneta Nordberg, and Kiminobu Sugaya (Vol. 104, No. 30, July 24, 2007, p. 12506-12511).


26. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION ARTICLE ABSTRACT: "Efficacy of a Hip Protector to Prevent Hip Fracture in Nursing Home Residents: The HIP PRO Randomized Controlled Trial," by Douglas P. Kiel, Jay Magaziner, Sheryl Zimmerman, Linda Ball, Bruce A. Barton, Kathleen M. Brown, Judith P. Stone, Dawn Dewkett, Stanley J. Birge (Vol. 298, No. 4, July 25, 2007, p. 413-422).


III. Working Papers:


A. "Effect of Early Conditions on Disability among Elderly in Latin America and the Caribbean," by Malena Monteverde, Kenya Noronha, and Alberto Palloni (CDE Working Paper 2007-11, 2007, .pdf format, 32p.).


Poor early conditions have been associated with increasing risks of some non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease during adulthood. On the other hand, these morbidity conditions are known as important risk factors for experiencing disabilities. This suggests that there must be at least indirect connections between early conditions and the risk of being disabled at older ages. The aim of the present study is to assess differentials in the risk of being disabled according to early conditions experienced by elderly populations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to identify the underlying mechanisms related to non-communicable diseases. We find that poor early conditions have a strong effect on disability later in life. A significant proportion of these effects are attributable to higher probabilities of suffering chronic conditions, especially vascular diseases and vascular diseases associated with diabetes.

B. "Obesity and the Loss of Life: A Comparison between the US and Mexico," by Malena Monteverde, Beatriz Novak, Kenya Noronha, and Alberto Palloni (CDE Working Paper 2007-12, 2007, .pdf format, 26p.).


High and increasing levels of obesity in the US and Mexico could compromise future gains in life expectancy for these populations. Excess mortality due to obesity has been investigated in the US but not in Latin America where high prevalence and the rapid growth of obesity are frequently combined with frail socio-economic conditions. The aim of this study is to measure loss in life expectancy due to obesity in Mexico and the US, taking advantage of the existence of comparable databases for both countries (HRS 2000 & 2004 for the US and MHAS 2000 & 2003 for Mexico). Our results show larger losses in life expectancy due to excess body fat among older people in Mexico (more than four years of life expectancy at age 60) than in the US (around 2 years). However, when analyzing differences in the effect among different socio-economic strata, we observe greater gaps between low-educated and high-educated people in the US than in Mexico. Remarkably, despite the fact that the relative probability of suffering obesity-related disease among individuals with highest BMI is larger for the US elderly, the relative risk of dying conditional on experiencing these diseases is higher in Mexico.


28. WHARTON SCHOOL (UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA) PENSION RESEARCH COUNCIL: Note: PRC requires free registration before providing working papers. "Managing Retirement Payouts: Positioning, Investing and Spending Assets," by Pension Research Council (WP2007-16, July 2007, .pdf format, 24p.). Links to an abstract and full text are available at:



A. "Pension Plan Characteristics and Framing Effects in Employee Savings Behavior," by David Card and Michael Ransom (w13275, July 2007, .pdf format, 23p.).


In this paper we document the importance of framing effects in the retirement savings decisions of college professors. Pensions in many post-secondary institutions are funded by a combination of an employer contribution and a mandatory employee contribution. Employees can also make tax-deferred contributions to a supplemental savings account. A standard lifecycle savings model predicts a "dollar-for-dollar" tradeoff between supplemental savings and the combined regular pension contributions made on behalf of an employee. Contrary to this prediction, we estimate that each additional dollar of employee contributions leads to a 70 cent reduction in supplemental savings, whereas each dollar of employer contributions generates only a 30 cent reduction. The asymmetry - which is consistent with different "mental accounts" for employer and employee contributions - provides further evidence of the sensitivity of individual savings decisions to the precise details of their pension plan.

B. "Aging, Saving, and Public Pensions in Japan," by Charles Yuji Horioka, Wataru Suzuki, and Tatsuo Hatta (w13273, July 2007, .pdf format, 39p.).


We analyze the impact of population aging on Japan's household saving rate and on its public pension system and the impact of that system on Japan's household saving rate and obtain the following results: first, the age structure of Japan's population can explain the level of, and past and future trends in, its household saving rate; second, the rapid aging of Japan's population is causing Japan's household saving rate to decline and this decline can be expected to continue; third, the pay-as-you-go nature of the public pension system, combined with rapid population aging, created considerable intergenerational inequities and increased the saving rates of cohorts born after 1965, which in turn slowed the decline in Japan's household saving rate; and fourth, the 2004 public pension reform alleviated the intergenerational inequities of Japan's public pension system somewhat but will in the long run exacerbate the downward trend in Japan's household saving rate.


30. RAND CORPORATION: "Cross-Country Variation in Obesity Patterns among Older Americans and Europeans," by Pierre-Carl Michaud, Arthur van Soest, and Tatiana Andreyeva (WR-495, May 2007, .pdf format, 34p.). Links to the abstract and full-text can be found:



A. "Firms and Early Retirement: Offers That One Does Not Refuse," by Lutz Bellmann and Florian Janik (Discussion Paper No. 2931, July 2007, .pdf format, 22p.).


According to the Hutchens (1999) model, early retirement is not explained as a result of maximizing expected individual utility but rather as a demand-side phenomenon arising from a firm's profit-maximizing behaviour. Firms enter into contracts with their employees that include clauses about early retirement. In response to demand or technological shocks, workers receive retirement offers from their employers which cannot be rejected by rational actors. Using the IAB Establishment Panel 2003-2006, the relationship between indicators of demand and technological shocks and the incidence and amount of early retirement is analysed. The results provide general support to the Hutchens model.

B. "Working Hours Flexibility and Older Workers' Labor Supply," by Anne C. Gielen (Discussion Paper No. 2946, July 2007, .pdf format, 50p.).


This paper studies the presence of hours constraints on the UK labor market and its effect on older workers labor supply, both at the extensive and the intensive margin. Using panel data for the period 1991-2004, the results from a competing risks model show that over-employed male workers can freely reduce working hours with their current employer before retiring completely. However, some over-employed women are observed to leave the labor market early due to hours constraints. Despite the fact that more flexibility in hours may increase labor market participation of older women, this paper presents some explorative results which illustrate that increasing working hours flexibility does not seem to increase older workers total labor supply as has often been suggested.


IV. Journal Tables of Contents (check your library for availability):

32. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association (Vol. 3, No. 3, July 2007).

33. American Journal of Epidemiology (Vol. 166, No. 4, August 15, 2007).

34. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry (Vol. 15, No. 8, August 1, 2007).

35. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics (Vol. 45, No. 2, Sep./Oct. 2007).

36. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Vol. 55, No. 8, August 2007).

37. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (Vol. 62, No. 4, July 1, 2007).

38. Medical Care (Vol. 45, No. 8, August 2007).

39. Research in Nursing & Health (Vol. 30, No. 4, August 2007).


40. IngentaConnect Tables of Contents: IngentaConnect provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

Point your browser to:

Click on "Browse" and browse to the journal of choice.

Journal of Gerontological Social Work (Vol. 49, No. 1/2, 2007).


41. AMEDEO MEDICAL LITERATURE: Note: "AMEDEO has been created to serve the needs of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrators, other members of the health professions, and patients and their friends. They can easily access timely, relevant information within their respective fields... All AMEDEO services are free of charge. This policy was made possible thanks to generous unrestricted educational grants provided by AMGEN, Berlex, Eisai, Glaxo Wellcome, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Schering AG."

A. Osteoporosis: Literature for the week of July 25/Aug. 1, 2007:

B. Alzheimer's Disease: Literature for the week of July 25/Aug. 1, 2007:

C. Parkinson's Disease: Literature for the week of July 25/Aug. 1, 2007:

D. Prostate Cancer: Literature for the week of July 25/Aug. 1, 2007:

E. Stem Cell Research: Literature for the week of July 25/Aug. 1, 2007:

F. Ophthalmology: Literature for the week of July 25/Aug. 1, 2007:

AMEDEO Literature Guide:


V. Books:

42. NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS: Improving the Social Security Representative Payee Program: Serving Beneficiaries and Minimizing Misuse by Committee on Social Security Representative Payees, National Research Council (2007, ISBN-10: 0-309-11100-5, ISBN-13: 978-0-309-11100-3, OpenBook format, 172p.).


43. URBAN INSTITUTE: International Perspectives on Social Security Reform edited by Rudolph G. Penner (2007, ISBN 978-0-87766-743-8, 174p.).


VI. Funding/Employment Opportunities:


A. "Tools and Techniques for Elucidating and Manipulating Neural Circuit Development (R21)," (RFA-MH-08-060, National Institute on Aging, in conjunction with other agencies, July 17, 2007).

B. "International network for identification, evaluation, and follow-up of families with early onset dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease (U01)," (RFA-AG-08-002, National Institute on Aging, July 17, 2007).

C. "Studies to Identify Possible Juvenile Protective Factors and Their Effects on Aging (R01)," (RFA-AG-08-003, National Institute on Aging, in conjunction with other agencies, July 17, 2007).

D. "Neuroimaging Informatics Software Enhancement for Improved Interoperability and Dissemination (R03)," (PAR-07-417, National Institute on Aging, in conjunction with other agencies, July 25, 2007).

E. "Request for Information (RFI): Creating a Gene Expression Atlas for Developing Rhesus Macaque Brain (Neuroscience Blueprint)," (NOT-MH-07-117, National Institute on Aging, in conjunction with other agencies, July 25, 2007).

F. "Federation using the BIRN and caBIG Infrastructures (R01)," (PAR-07-426, National Institute on Aging, in conjunction with other agencies, August 3, 2007).


45. EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR SOCIAL WELFARE POLICY AND RESEARCH: "Economist/Social Policy Analyst: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research," (July 2007).


VII. Websites of Interest:

46. CENTERS FOR MEDICARE AND MEDICAID SERVICES: "2007 Low-Income Subsidy (LIS) Toolkit," (July 2007, .pdf format). "This toolkit provides important resources for partners to help beneficiaries learn about and apply for extra help (the low-income subsidy, or LIS). Please scroll down to the bottom of the page for downloadable materials and helpful links for those that may need extra help paying for prescription drugs."


47. NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON AGING: "Mourning the Death of a Spouse," is a new web page developed by NIA "help older people cope with grief" after the loss of a loved one (August 2007, .pdf format, 6p.).


48. PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS BIBLIOGRAPHY UPDATE: The University of Michigan Institute for Social Research PSID has recently added the following item to its bibliography. The entire bibliography can be searched or browsed in various ways at:

Haider, Steven J. and Stephens, Jr., Melvin. Is There a Retirement-Consumption Puzzle? Evidence Using Subjective Retirement Expectations. Review of Economics and Statistics. 2007; 89(2):247-264.

Hendricks, Lutz. Retirement Wealth and Lifetime Earnings. International Economic Review. 2007; 48(2):421-456.

Wilhelm, Mark O.; Rooney, Patrick M., and Tempel, Eugene R. Changes in Religious Giving Reflect Changes in Involvement: Age and Cohort Effects in Religious Giving, Secular Giving, and Attendance. Journal For the Scientific Study of Religion. 2007; 46(2):217-232.

Wilson, George. Introduction: The ANNALS. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 2007; 609(_):6-15.




Charlie Fiss
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