Current Awareness in Aging Research (CAAR) Report #294--June 30, 2005


CAAR (Current Awareness in Aging Research) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography of Health and Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:


There will be no CAAR Report for the week of July 7, 2005. The next CAAR Report will be sent out on July 14, 2005.

I. Data:

1. HRS:

A. "Cross-Wave Employment and Pension Data Files Released," (Health and Retirement Study, June 28, 2005).

B. "Researcher Contribution: Tax Calculations for HRS 2000 & 2002," (Health and Retirement Study, June 27, 2005).

2. NCHS: "NHANES III Linked Mortality File," (National Center for Health Statistics, June 2005). "NCHS has conducted a mortality linkage of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) with the National Death Index (NDI). Linkage of the NHANES III survey participants with the NDI provides the opportunity to conduct a vast array of outcome studies designed to investigate the association of a wide variety of health factors with mortality. This is the first in a series of planned mortality linkages for the NHANES III survey."


A. "Family History Files: 2003 Data". For more information see:

Data access:

B. "2003 Short-Term Co-Resident," (June 30, 2005). For more information see:


II. Reports and articles:


A. "Medicaid Financing: States' Use of Contingency-Fee Consultants to Maximize Federal Reimbursements Highlights Need for Improved Federal Oversight," (US Government Accountability Office, GAO-05-748, June 28, 2005, .pdf format, 92p.).

B. "Medicare: Drug Purchase Prices for CMS Consideration in Hospital Outpatient Rate-Setting," (US Government Accountability Office, GAO-05-581R, June 30, 2005, .pdf format, 32p.).

Note: These are temporary addresses. GAO reports are always available at:


A. "Medicaid Drug Price Comparison: Average Sales Price to Average Wholesale Price," (US Department of Health and Human Service, Office of Inspector General, OEI-03-05-00200, June 2005, .pdf format, 15p.).


"[This report] examined prices for Medicare-covered drugs (2,077 national drug codes). Medicare-covered drugs may also be covered by the Medicaid program. This report found that ASP is 49 percent lower than AWP. The difference between ASP and AWP was also greatest for generic drugs, similar to the companion report. For single source brand codes, ASP is 26 percent below AWP at the median, and for multisource brand codes, ASP is 30 percent below AWP at the median. For generic national drug codes, ASP is 68 percent less than AWP at the median. OIG also found that the differences between AWP and other prices analyzed are similar for both reports. OIG found that the difference between AMP and AWP for generic drugs is 72 percent for Medicare-covered drugs. For single source and multisource brand drugs, this report found that the differences between AMP and AWP for Medicare-covered drugs are 22 and 25 percent, respectively."

B. "Medicaid Drug Price Comparisons: Average Manufacturer Price to Published Prices," (US Department of Health and Human Service, Office of Inspector General, OEI-05-05-00240, June 2005, .pdf format, 27p.) .


"[This report] examined prices for Medicaid-reimbursed drugs (24,101 national drug codes). This report found that at the median, AMP is 59 percent lower than AWP. In comparison, the median AWP-based State estimated acquisition cost formula is AWP minus 12 percent. The difference between AMP and published prices was greatest for generic drugs. For generic drugs, AMP is 70 percent lower than AWP at the median. In comparison, AMP is 23 percent lower than AWP at the median for single source brands and 28 percent lower for multisource brands."

C. "Comparison of Medicaid Federal Upper Limit Amounts to Average Manufacturer Prices," (US Department of Health and Human Service, Office of Inspector General, OEI-03-05-00110, June 2005, .pdf format, 19p.).


"In this inspection, the OIG found that, overall, Federal upper limit amounts were five times higher than the average manufacturer prices (AMP) for generic drug products in the third quarter of 2004. During the same period, the Federal upper limit amount was, on average, 22 times higher than the lowest reported AMP. If Medicaid based Federal upper limit amounts on reported AMPs, the program could save hundreds of millions of dollars per year. OIG recommended that CMS work with Congress to set Federal upper limit amounts that more closely approximate acquisition costs. CMS concurred with OIG's recommendation."

6. CMMS PROPOSED RULE: "Medicare Program; Competitive Acquisition of Outpatient Drugs and Biologicals Under Part B" (Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services, CMS-1325-IFC, June 2005) .

Press Release:


A. "Will You Still Need Me? The Health and Financial Security of Older Americans," by Sara R. Collins, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Michelle M. Doty, Sabrina K. H. How, and Alyssa L. Holmgren (June 2005, .pdf format, 46p.).

B. "Paying More for Less: Older Adults in the Individual Insurance Market," by Sara R. Collins, Cathy Schoen, Michelle M. Doty, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Sabrina K. How (June 2005, .pdf format, 11p.).

C. "Medicare Health Accounts: A New Policy Option to Help Adults Save for Health Care Expenses Not Covered by Medicare," by Sara R. Collins, Karen Davis, Sabrina K. H. How, and Alyssa L. Holmgren (June 2005, .pdf format, 2p.).

Go to "Downloads" in the right hand panel of each page to access full-text.

8. CATO INSTITUTE REPORT: "Noble Lies, Liberal Purposes, and Personal Retirement Accounts," by Will Wilkinson (Social Security Choice Papers no. 34, June 2005, .pdf format, 19p.).

Scroll down to "Full Text of Social Security Choice Papers no. 34."


A. "Unintended Consequences: The Potential Impact of Medicare Part D on Dual Eligibles with Disabilities in Medicaid Work Incentive Programs," by Jean P. Hall, Janice M. Moore, and Theresa I. Shireman (June 2005, .pdf format, 36p.).

B. "The Distribution of Assets in the Elderly Population Living in the Community," by Barbara Lyons, Andy Schneider, and Katherine A. Desmond (June 2005, .pdf format, 6p.).


A. "Update on the Older Worker: 2004," by Sara Rix (2005, .pdf format, 4p.).

B. "Medicaid Estate Recovery: A 2004 Survey of State Programs and Practices," by Naomi Karp, Charles P. Sabatino, and Erica F. Wood (June 2005, .pdf format, 97p.).

C. "Parallel Trading in Medicines: Europe's Experience and Its Implications for Commercial Drug Importation in the United States," by Panos Kanavos, David Gross, and David Taylor (2005, .pdf format, 30p.).

Press Release:

D. "Identifying Medicare Beneficiaries with Poor Health Literacy Skills: Is a Short Screening Index Feasible?" by Judith Hibbard, Jessica Greene and Martin Tusler (June 2005, .pdf format, 23p.).

E. "How Much Do Health Literacy and Patient Activation Contribute to Older Adults' Ability to Manage Their Health?" by Jessica Greene, Judith Hibbard, and Martin Tusler (June 2005, .pdf format, 24p.).

11. ACCESS TO BENEFITS COALITION REPORT: "Pathways to Success: Meeting the Challenge of Enrolling Medicare Beneficiaries with Limited Incomes," (June 2005, .pdf format, 28p.).

For more information about the Coalition:

12. KING'S FUND [UK] REPORT SUMMARY: "The Business of Caring: King's Fund inquiry into care services for older people in London," by Janice Robinson and Penny Banks (June 2005, .pdf format, 20p.).

Full-text report can be purchased at:


A. "$374 million respite boost to support carers - 2005," (June 24, 2005).

B. "$152 million boost for aged care - 2005," (June 27, 2005).


A. "An alternative interpretation of the amyloid A{beta} hypothesis with regard to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease," by Vincent T. Marchesi (_Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences_, vol. 102, no. 26, June 28, 2005, .pdf and HTML format, p. 9093-9098).

B. "Cell intrinsic alterations underlie hematopoietic stem cell aging," by Derrick J. Rossi, David Bryder, Jacob M. Zahn, Henrik Ahlenius, Rebecca Sonu, Amy J. Wagers, and Irving L. Weissman (_Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences_, vol. 102, no. 26, June 28, 2005, .pdf and HTML format, p. 9194-9199).


A. "Global histone modification patterns predict risk of prostate cancer recurrence," by David B. Seligson, Steve Horvath, Tao Shi, Hong Yu, Sheila Tze, Michael Grunstein and Siavash K. Kurdistani (_Nature_, vol. 435, no. 7046, June 30, 2005, .pdf and HTML format, p. 1262-1266).

B. "Dynamics of chronic myeloid leukaemia," by Franziska Michor, Timothy P. Hughes, Yoh Iwasa, Susan Branford, Neil P. Shah, Charles L. Sawyers, and Martin A. Nowak (_Nature_, vol. 435, no. 7046, June 30, 2005, .pdf and HTML format, p. 1267-1270).

16. _LANCET_ ARTICLE ABSTRACT: "Incidence, 30-day case-fatality rate, and prognosis of stroke in Iquique, Chile: a 2-year community-based prospective study (PISCIS project)," by Pablo M Lavados, Claudio Sacks, Liliana Prina, Arturo Escobar, Claudia Tossi, Fernando Araya, Walter Feuerhake, Marcelo Galvez, Rodrigo Salinas, and Gonzalo Alvarez (_Lancet_, vol. 365, no. 9478, June 25, 2005, .pdf and HTML format, p. 2206-2215).

17. NBER NEWSLETTER: Bulletin on Aging and Health (Spring 2005, HTML and .pdf format 4p.).

18. US NEWS & WORLD REPORT ARTICLE: "A very precious gift of time," by Josh Fischman (US News & World Report, July 4, 2005).


III. Working Papers:

19. UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN CENTER FOR DEMOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY: "Aging and Health Status of Elderly in Latin America and the Caribbean," by Alberto Palloni and Mary McEniry (Working Paper 2004-09, October 2004, .pdf format, 49p.).


Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean will not proceed along known paths already followed by more developed countries. In particular, the health profile of the future elderly population is less predictable due to factors associated with their demographic past that may haunt them for a long time and make them more vulnerable, even if economic and institutional conditions turn out to be better than what they are likely to be. This paper answers a set of questions regarding the nature and determinants of health status among the elderly in Latin America and the Caribbean using SABE (Survey on Health and Well-Being of Elders), a cross-sectional representative sample of over 10,000 elderly aged 60 and above in private homes in seven major cities in Latin America and the Caribbean. We examine health outcomes such as self-reported health, functional limitations--Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), obesity (ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in centimeters), and self reported chronic conditions (including diabetes). The findings include: (a) Countries differ in self-reported health but exhibit much less differences in terms of functional limitations. The number of chronic conditions increase with age and is higher among females than among males; (b) On average SABE countries display levels of self-reported diabetes (and obesity) that are as high if not higher than those found in the US; (c) There is evidence, albeit weaker than expected, suggesting deteriorated health and functional status in the region; (d) There is important evidence pointing toward rather strong inequalities (by education and income) in selected health outcomes. Preliminary findings from SABE confirm that Latin America and the Caribbean display peculiarities in the health profile of elderly, particularly with regard to diabetes and obesity. It is important that new policy initiatives begin to seriously target the region's elderly, especially with an emphasis on the prevention and treatment of diabetes and obesity.


A. "Socioeconomic and Demographic Disparities in Trends in Old-Age Disability," by Robert F. Schoeni, Vicki A. Freedman, and Linda G. Martin (TRENDS Working Paper No. 05-1, May 2005, .pdf format, 26p.).


Old-age disability rates among all major socioeconomic and demographic groups declined over the past two decades, but the magnitude of the fall was larger for those who have higher income, have more years of education, are married, and are younger. As a result, disparities in disability have increased. The causes of these developments are unknown, while the potential ramifications for social and personal well-being are substantial.

B. "Trends in Assistance with Daily Activities: Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities Persist in the U.S. Older Population," by Vicki Freedman, Linda G. Martin, Jennifer Cornman, Emily M. Agree, and Robert F. Schoeni (TRENDS No. 05-2, June 2005, .pdf format, 31p.).

Assistive technology has become increasingly important in facilitating independence among older Americans. It remains unclear, however, whether this trend has been experienced broadly. Using the 1992 to 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, we provide evidence that among older people who have difficulty with daily activities, there were substantial increases in the independent use of assistive technology (without help from another person). Controlling for shifts in the composition of the older population reporting difficulty with daily activities, the independent use of assistive technology increased on average 4% to 5% per year, amounting to a 6 percentage point increase over the entire period. These increases were accompanied by declines in the use of any help and in unassisted difficulty, with larger declines in the latter. Substantial differentials in assistance-which favor the more highly educated in the case of technology and favor minorities in the case of help-persisted over this period. All else equal, 5-percentage point gaps were evident between more and less advantaged education groups with respect to the independent use of assistive technology for walking. Gaps in the independent use of assistive technology to bathe were even larger, amounting to 7 to 8 percentage points in 2001 by education and race. We discuss the implications of findings for the study of late-life disability trends and disparities therein.


A. "Strategic Asset Allocation in Japan: An Empirical Evaluation," by Tokuo Iwaisako, Olivia S. Mitchell, and John Piggott (WP 2005-01, 2005, .pdf format, 44p.).


This research seeks to provide a comprehensive picture of lifetime asset allocation in Japan. We evaluate patterns in the level and composition of assets by household type, taking account of home ownership and household claims on social security as well as financial assets and pensions. The analysis relies on a micro-data taken from the RADAR survey fielded by Nikkei, for the year 2000. The RADAR data are the only publicly available dataset to record financial asset holdings in any detail, with which we calculate housing equity as well as other forms of wealth. We supplement this with external information on pension and social security entitlements. The resulting picture attests to the importance of housing and social security in the portfolios of households approaching retirement. As well, we compare asset allocation patterns between those who are worse vs. better off, better vs. worse educated, married couples vs others, and dualearner vs. single earner couples. Our econometric analysis of asset allocation choice reinforces priors regarding Japanese lifecycle asset allocation patterns: households do invest conservatively, other than their family home; they are risk-averse in their allocation of financial assets; and they appear to over-invest in housing and life insurance, two assets which enjoy preferential bequest tax treatment. We argue that institutional, historical, and policy influences explain much of observed Japanese preferences for safe financial assets, and we offer suggestions for mechanisms that could increase household diversification.

B. "Public Pension Governance, Funding, and Performance: A Longitudinal Appraisal," by Tongxuan (Stella) Yang and Olivia S. Mitchell (WP 2005-02, 2005, .pdf format, 38p.).


Pension plans covering US public sector employees now face the twin challenges of poor asset returns and rapid increases in liabilities, producing the worst pension funding outcomes in decades. This paper explores how public pension plan investment performance and funding is related to several structural and pension design features. Using a new longitudinal dataset on state and local public pension plans, we evaluate how investment performance is tied to stock funding ratios and how stock funding ratio in turn affects flow funding efforts. We find that particular governance structures can enhance public pension plan investment performance and funding status, and we suggest ways in which public plan design might be improved.

C. "The Importance of Financial Communication for Participation Rates and Contribution Levels in 401(k) Plans," by Steven A. Nyce (WP 2005-03, 2005, .pdf format, 47p.). Note: No abstract available for this paper.

D. "Understanding the Defined Benefit versus Defined Contribution Choice," by Tongxuan (Stella) Yang (WP 2005-04, 2005, .pdf format, 55p.).


Defined benefit (DB) plans and defined contribution (DC) plans are the two main types of retirement pensions sponsored by US employers. This paper explores the choices made by employees in a non-profit firm when offered the option of switching from a DB to a DC plan. Overall, half of the employees switched into the DC plan and half stayed with the DB. We find that both demographic and economic factors affected an employee's plan switch decisions. We also find that the default option - by making no active election an employee remained in the old DB plan - had an important impact on some employees' retirement savings. Surprisingly, half of the employees under age of 40 who could potentially benefit more from the DC plan defaulted to the DB plan, and the DB defaulters were more similar to the DC switchers than DB choosers. According to the employer's calculation, altogether the defaulted employees with positive opportunity costs have forgone $7M, or 37 percent of their annual salary. Among those who switched to the DC plan, the contribution rates were affected by the DC plan match formula, the employee's age, salary, and other saving. Given the actual behavior of those who switched, there was virtually no change in employer pension expenses after the switch.

E. "Better Plans for the Better-Paid: Determinants and Effects of 401(k) Plan Design," by Olivia S. Mitchell, Stephen P. Utkus, and Tongxuan (Stella) Yang (WP 2005-05, 2005, .pdf format, 54p.).


This paper seeks to understand why plan sponsors design their 401(k) plans the way they do. Drawing on a rich dataset of several hundred 401(k) plans, we find support for the argument that these plans are principally a form of tax-motivated compensation. In other words, to appeal to better-paid workers, employers provide more generous matching contributions and non-cash plan design features. At the same time, complex federal tax rules restrict pay discrimination in favor of the highly-paid, so these plans must also incorporate monetary and non-monetary incentives to induce a minimum level of participation by lower-paid workers. We show that, since all employees do not avail themselves of these saving incentives, the median employer promises a match equivalent to 3% of pay yet spends only about 2%. Also, generous match rates enhance participation by the lower-paid, but do not do much to increase plan-wide saving rates. Overall, employer 401(k) matching contributions are an imperfect vehicle for advancing broad-based retirement security objectives, and they have an uneven impact across firms.

F. "The Evolution of Risk and Reward Sharing in Retirement," 2005 PRC Conference overview (WP 2005-06, 2005, .pdf format, 25p.). Note: No abstract is available for this paper.

22. NEW ZEALAND TREASURY: "The Living Standards, Incomes and Accommodation Costs of Older New Zealanders Revisited," by Roger Hurnard, Dean Hyslop and Ivan Tuckwell (Working Paper 05/03, June 2005, .pdf format, 21p.).


In 2001 the then Ministry of Social Policy published a comprehensive study of the living standards of older New Zealanders. The current paper revisits the estimated relationship between material well-being and the current income and accommodation costs of older people, and questions the extent to which income and accommodation costs directly affect well-being or proxy for other factors. We first extend the estimated relationship between material well-being and current income to include the source of the income as well as its level. We find that controlling for different income sources roughly halves the estimated associative effect of income on material well-being. Furthermore, for a given level of income, those with higher fractions of either employment earnings or capital investment income have significantly higher material well-being scores, while those with a higher fraction of income from benefit allowances have lower scores. One interpretation is that these factors may proxy for other causal factors, such as health and wealth effects, rather than reflecting a direct income effect. Next, we extend the original specification between material well-being and accommodation costs to, first, include property rates as an accommodation cost and, second, to control for the type of housing tenure (freehold homeowner, mortgaged, renter, and no accommodation costs). We find that, controlling for housing tenure, the estimated effect of accommodation costs (including rates) is, at most, half that originally estimated and, for some specifications, insignificantly different from zero. Furthermore, controlling for the level of accommodation costs, mortgage holders and renters have significantly lower material well-being scores than freehold homeowners. These findings suggest that understanding what influences the material well-being outcomes of older people is not as straightforward as might be suggested by the simple association of certain variables.

23. SCANDINAVIAN WORKING PAPERS IN ECONOMICS [STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN]: "Political economy and pensions in ageing societies - a note on how an "impossible" reform was implemented in Sweden," by Agneta Kruse (No. 2005:35, June 2005, .pdf format, 16p.).


Ageing puts a strain on most countries' pension systems; forecasts show them to be more or less unsustainable. Evidence from social choice research, theoretical as well as empirical, does not seem to offer a way out of the dilemma, as the median voter will resist a reform. Despite this, Sweden has implemented a major reform, supposedly making the system sustainable. The question in this paper is thus: how was it possible to launch such a reform in Sweden? The analysis is based on majority voting models. Important explanatory factors are age structure as well as the age of the median voter; both of these go against the probability of a reform. A focus on age structure in combination with transitional rules and specific features of the reform may provide an explanation.

24. DEPARTAMENTO DE TEORIA E HISTORIA ECONIMICA [UNIVERSIDAD DE GRANDA]: "Population Aging and Legal Retirement Age," by Juan Antonio Lacomba and Francisco Miguel Lagos (ThE 05/16, June 2005, .pdf format, 19p.).


This paper analyzes the effects of population aging on the preferred legal retirement age. What is revealed is the crucial role that the indirect 'macro' effects resulting from a change in the legal retirement age play in the optimal decision. Two Social Security systems are studied. Under a defined contribution scheme aging lowers the preferred legal retirement age. However, under a defined pension scheme the retirement age is delayed. This result shows the relevance of correctly choosing the parameter affected by the dependency ratio in the design of the Social Security programme.


IV. Journal Tables of Contents (check your library for availability):

25. American Journal of Epidemiology (vol. 162, no. 2, July 15, 2005).

26. American Journal of Public Health (Vol. 95, No. 7, July 2005). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library and EBSCO Host Academic Elite database. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

27. Journal of Family Issues (vol. 26, no. 5, July 1, 2005).

28. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences (vol. 60A, no. 6, June 2005). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

29. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (vol. 60B, no. 4, July 2005). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.

30. INGENTA Tables of Contents: INGENTA provides fee based document delivery services for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

B. click on "advanced search"
C. Type in your publication name and click "Exact title" radio button
D. Under "Show", click the "fax/ariel" radio button.
E. View the table of contents for the issue noted.

Health and Social Work (vol. 30, no. 2, 2005). Note: Full electronic text of this journal is available in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of this database and this issue.


31. AMEDEO MEDICAL LITERATURE: Note: "AMEDEO has been created to serve the needs of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, administrators, other members of the health professions, and patients and their friends. They can easily access timely, relevant information within their respective fields... All AMEDEO services are free of charge. This policy was made possible thanks to generous unrestricted educational grants provided by AMGEN, Berlex, Eisai, Glaxo Wellcome, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Schering AG."

A. Osteoporosis: Literature for the week of June 29, 2005:

B. Alzheimer's Disease: Literature for the week of June 29, 2005:

C. Parkinson's Disease: Literature for the week of June 29, 2005:

D. Prostate Cancer: Literature for the week of June 29, 2005:

E. Stem Cell Research: Literature for the week of June 29, 2005:

F. Ophthalmology: Literature for the week of June 29, 2005:

AMEDEO Literature Guide:


V. Funding Opportunities:

32. AOA: "Planning Grants Project (PGP)," (US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging, HHS-2005-AoA-PG-0506, June 2005). The deadline for application is August 5, 2005.

33. NATIONAL COUNCIL ON AGING: "This project is the first of its kind to document "promising practices" in the field of civic engagement for adults age 50+ at the local level. Our goal is to find out what is happening at the local level from organizations (such as schools, churches, social service agencies, government offices, non-profits, corporations, university extensions, etc.) We also want to include and learn about community-wide efforts to increase civic engagement among adults 50+. The community-wide efforts can take many forms - collaboratives, coalitions, partnerships, and other integrated and coordinated multi-organization endeavors." For more information go to:

34. AUSTRALIAN DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND AGEING: "$10 million to boost research into ageing - 2005," (June 29, 2005).


VI. Legislation Information Updates:

35. US SENATE COMMITTEE ON FINANCE HEARING TESTIMONY: "Medicaid Waste, Fraud and Abuse: Threatening the Health Care Safety Net," a hearing held June 28-29, 2005.

Hearing Testimony:

June 28, 2005:

June 29, 2005:


A. "Mandatory or Optional? The Truth About Medicaid," a hearing held June 28, 2005.

Hearing testimony:

B. "Saving Dollars, Saving Lives: The Importance of Prevention in Curing Medicare?" a hearing held June 30, 2005.

Hearing testimony:

37. US HOUSE COMMITTEE ON WAYS AND MEANS, SUBCOMMITTEE ON SELECT REVENUES, HEARING TESTIMONY: "Hearing on Funding Rules for Multiemployer Defined Benefit Plans in H.R. 2830, the 'Pension Protection Act of 2005'," a hearing held June 28, 2005.

Hearing testimony:


VII. Websites of Interest:

38. KAISER FAMILY FOUNDATION: "The Medicare and Medicaid programs, signed into law 40 years ago on July 30, 1965, continue to play vital roles in our nation's health insurance coverage system. As we approach the two programs' shared anniversary, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation is pleased to release interactive timelines that track their evolution and mark major developments in the programs."

Medicare: A Timeline of Key Developments

Medicaid:  A Timeline of Key Developments




Charlie Fiss
Information Manager
Center for Demography and Ecology and
Center for Demography of Health and Aging
Rm. 4470A Social Science Bldg
1180 Observatory Drive
Madison, WI 53706-1393
Phone: (608) 265-9240
Fax: (608) 262-8400