Current Awareness in Aging Research (CAAR) Report #14--December 22, 1999

CAAR (Current Awareness in Aging Research) is a weekly email report produced by the Center for Demography of Health and Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that helps researchers keep up to date with the latest developments in the field. For more information, including an archive of back issues and subscription information see:

NOTE: There will be no CAAR Report next week. This service will resume Thursday, January 6, 2000. Enjoy the break.

I. Data:

1. ICPSR MIDUS: ICPSR has released the first version of the _National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), 1995-1996_, by Orville G. Brim, Paul B. Baltes, Larry L. Bumpass, Paul D. Cleary, David L. Featherman, William R. Hazzard, Ronald C. Kessler, Margie E. Lachman, Hazel Rose Markus, Michael G. Marmot, Alice S. Rossi, Carol D. Ryff, and Richard A. Shweder (ICPSR Study #2760, December 1999).

>From the Summary:

The National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) is a collaborative, interdisciplinary investigation of patterns, predictors, and consequences of midlife development in the areas of physical health, psychological well-being, and social responsibility. Respondents were drawn from a nationally representative random-digit-dial sample of noninstitutionalized, English-speaking adults, aged 25-74, selected from working telephone banks in the coterminous United States. Those queried participated in an initial telephone interview and responded to a mail questionnaire. Part 1, Main Data, contains responses from the main survey of 4,242 respondents. Respondents were asked to provide extensive information on their physical and mental health throughout their adult
lives, and to assess the ways in which their lifestyles, including relationships and work-related demands, contributed to the conditions experienced. Those queried were asked to describe their histories of physical ailments, including heart-related conditions and cancer, as well as the treatment and/or lifestyle changes they went through as a result. A series of questions addressed alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use, and focused on history of use, regularity of use, attempts to quit, and how
the use of those substances affected respondents' physical and mental well-being. Additional questions addressed respondents' sense of control over their health, their awareness of changes in their medical conditions, commitment to regular exercise and a healthy diet, experience with menopause, the decision-making process used to deal with health concerns, experiences with nontraditional remedies or therapies, and history of attending support groups. Respondents were asked to compare their overall well-being with that of their peers and to describe social, physical, and emotional characteristics typical of adults in their 20s, 40s, and 60s.
Information on the work histories of respondents and their significant others was also elicited, with items covering the nature of their occupations, work-related physical and emotional demands, and how their personal health had correlated to their jobs. An additional series of questions focusing on childhood queried respondents regarding the presence/absence of their parents, religion, rules/punishments, love/affection, physical/verbal abuse, and the quality of their
relationships with their parents and siblings. Respondents were also asked to consider their personal feelings of accomplishment, desire to learn, their sense of control over their lives, their interests, and their hopes for the future. Part 2, Siblings Data, contains data from a survey of 951 respondents, each of whom was a sibling of a respondent in Part 1, the Main file. These siblings participated in the same assessments as the respondents. Part 3, Twins Data, presents data from a survey of 1,996
twins. These twin pairs were found within the Main respondent's or his/her spouse's immediate family. The Twins respondents were given the same assessments as the Main and Siblings samples. Additionally, the Twins sample was asked a series of questions about their birth, shared physical characteristics, childhood and adult relationships with their twins, whether they were dressed alike as children, and whether others experienced difficulty identifying them correctly. Part 4, Main: Weights, for Respondents Completing Both the Telephone Survey and Mail Questionnaire, contains respondent weights for those who completed both
the initial telephone survey and the mail questionnaire, while Part 5, Main: Weights for Respondents Completing at Least the Telephone Survey, contains respondent weights for those who completed at least the telephone survey. Information in Part 6, Siblings: ID Match, enables the user to link a respondent in the Siblings file with his/her sibling in the Main file by ID number. Background information on respondents includes age, sex, education, religion, marital status, employment status, age of
children, household income, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, height, weight, insurance coverage, spouse's employment status and occupation, parents' occupation history and age of death, and respondents' childhood experiences.

All documentation (.pdf format) and data (SAS transport and SPSS export formats) are freely available to the public.

and search on "Study #" 2760.

Note: There is a connection to an ICPSR ftp site at the site.

2. GPO MEDICARE UNIQUE PHYSICIAN IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (1998): This CD-ROM is available through the Government Printing Office. It is produced by the Health Care Financing Administration. More information, including pricing information is available at:

II. Reports and articles

3. NCHS REPORT: "Characteristics of Elderly Home Health Care Users: Data From the 1996 National Home and Hospice Care Survey," by Martha Little
Munson (Advance Data Report 309, December 1999, .pdf format, 12p.).

>From the Abstract:

During 1996, there were an estimated 1.75 million elderly people age 65 years and over using home health care services. [This report] presents demographic characteristics, service utilization, and care received by current home health care patients and those discharged in 1996. When both the current patients and discharge samples were examined by individual demographic characteristics, the majority were women (70 percent), 75-84 years old (47 percent), white (69 percent), widowed (47 percent), living in private residences (92 percent).

4. _SCIENCE_ ARTICLE: "Microglial Activation Resulting from CD40-CD40L Interaction After Beta-Amyloid Stimulation," by Jun Tan, Terrence Town,
Daniel Paris, Takashi Mori, Zhiming Suo, Fiona Crawford, Mark P. Mattson, Richard A. Flavell, and Michael Mullan (_Science_ Vol. 286, No. 5448, December 17, 1999, p. 2352-2355). Note: Full text of this article may be available to your organization. Click on "Full Text or "pdf" to see.

5. CDC--SURVEILLANCE SUMMARY: "Surveillance for Selected Public Health Indicators Affecting Older Adults --- United States," (Vol. 48, No. SS-8,
December 17, 1999, HTML and .pdf formats, 168p.).


Overview: Surveillance for Selected Public Health Indicators Affecting Older Adults --- United States

Surveillance for Morbidity and Mortality Among Older Adults --- United States, 1995--1996

Surveillance for Injuries and Violence Among Older Adults Surveillance for Use of Preventive Health-Care Services by Older Adults, 1995-1997

Surveillance for Five Health Risks Among Older Adults --- United States, 1993--1997

Surveillance for Sensory Impairment, Activity Limitation, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Older Adults --- United States, 1993--1997

CDC Press Release Which Links to the Surveillance Summary (at the bottom of the page):

6. AARP SUMMARY REPORT: "Important Issues For AARP Members Likely to Participate in the Iowa Caucuses: A Summary of Findings" (AARP Research Group, December 1999, .pdf format, 9p.). This summary presents the results of an AARP survey of its politically active members in Iowa.

Press Release Which Links to Executive Summary of Findings:

7. _AHJ_ ARTICLE: "Sex Differences in the Clinical Care and Outcomes of Congestive Heart Failure in the Elderly," by Viola Vaccarino, Ya-Ting Chen, Yun Wang, Martha J. Radford, and Harlan M. Krumholz (_American Heart Journal_ 138(5):835-842, 1999 [via Medscape]). Note: Medscape requires free registration before providing access to articles.

>From the Abstract:

Female and male patients hospitalized for heart failure have a similar hospital course, treatment pattern, and readmission rates, but women live longer than men. When baseline differences are accounted for, the mortality risk of women and men becomes very similar.

8. _JAMA_ ARTICLE: "Factors Associated With Use of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Seriously Ill Hospitalized Adults," by Sarah J. Goodlin, Zhenshao Zhong, Joanne Lynn, Joan M. Teno, Julie P. Fago, Norman Desbiens, Alfred F. Connors, Jr, Neil S. Wenger, and Russell S. Phillips (_Journal of the American Medical Association_ Vol. 282, No. 24, Dec. 22/29 1999, p. 2333-2339).

>From the Abstract:

The epidemiology of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders for hospitalized patients has been reported, but little is known about factors associated with the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).... Objective: To identify factors associated with an attempt at CPR for patients who experienced cardiopulmonary arrest. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected in 2 prospective cohort studies: the Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments (SUPPORT, 1989-1994) and the Hospitalized Elderly Longitudinal Project (HELP, 1994).... Participants: A total of 2505 seriously ill hospitalized
patients and nonelectively admitted persons aged 80 years or older who experienced cardiopulmonary arrest.... Conclusions: Our data suggest that a resuscitation attempt is more likely when preferred by patients and when death is least expected. Further study is required to understand variation in use of CPR among sites and for patients with different diagnoses, race, sex, or age.

9. URBAN INSTITUTE REPORT: As part of the Social Security Administration's policy analysis data system "Modelling Income in the Near Term (MINT)," the Urban Institute has released: _FINAL Report: Modeling Income in the Near Term-Projection of Retirement Income Through 2020 for the 1931-60 Cohorts_, by Eric Toder, Cori Uccello, John O'Hare, Melissa Favreault, Caroline Ratcliffe, Karen Smith, Gary Burtless, and Barry Bosworth (September 1999, .pdf format, 320p.).

>From the Introduction:

The Division of Policy Evaluation (DPE) at the Social Security Administration (SSA) is developing a model to evaluate the distributional effects of Social Security policy changes. The model is referred to as Modeling Income in the Near Term, or MINT, because the project sought to develop within a short time frame a model that could assess the effects of reforms through the early retirement years of the early post-war birth cohorts. This technical report describes the results of development work on the MINT model performed under contract to SSA by the Urban Institute (UI) and the Brookings Institution (Brookings). The report discusses the methods used to project future incomes, presents regression results for equations explaining the path of different sources of income, and displays
tables that summarize the results of projections. It discusses how income in retirement is projected to change for younger cohorts, relative to birth cohorts retiring in the 1990s, and discusses the sources of projected changes in the distribution of income of retirees. The base data sets used in the model are 1990-93 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), matched to Social Security Earnings Records (SER) and Master Beneficiary Records (MBR). The SERs give earnings histories for the years 1951-1996. The project uses data on the matched files for individuals in the 1931-60 birth cohorts to project their incomes at ages 62 and 67 and post-retirement incomes to the year 2020. As part of the contract, UI and Brookings have supplied the SSA with SAS export files and documentation of all the projections and of the programs that create the projections. This report summarizes the research results that are contained in the data files.


III. Working Papers

10. SIPP: The Census Bureau Survey of Income and Program Participation has made electronically available "The Survey of Income and Program Participation - Recent History and Future Developments," by Daniel H. Weinberg (SIPP Working Paper No. 290, January 1999, .pdf format, 17p.).

>From the Abstract:

Longitudinal monthly data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) enable researchers to examine key dynamic events. This paper reports on recent Census Bureau initiatives that have made the SIPP data easier to use, possible changes in SIPPs design to make it a viable source of official income and poverty statistics, some recent research findings within the context of the overall research program, and some of the remaining challenges the Census Bureau faces.


A. "The Impact of Social Security and Other Factors on the Distribution of Wealth," by by Jagadeesh Gokhale and Laurence J. Kotlikoff (Working Paper 9913, November 1999, .pdf format, 38p.).

>From the Abstract:

Auerbach et al. (1995), document the dramatic postwar increase in the annuitization of the resources of America's elderly. Gokhale et al. (1996) suggest that greater annuitization may explain the significant postwar rise in the consumption propensity of the elderly out of remaining lifetime resources. Gokhale et al. (2000) consider the related point that increased annuitization will reduce bequests, especially for lower and middle-income households, whose entire earnings are taxed under Social
Security. By differentially disenfranchising the children of the poor from receipt of inheritances, Social Security may materially alter the distribution of wealth. This paper uses data from the PSID to further analyze how Social Security and other factors affect wealth inequality. The Gini coefficient of the simulated equilibrium wealth distribution is 21 percent larger and the share of wealth held by the wealthiest 1 percent of households is 79 percent higher in the presence of Social Security.

B. "The Adequacy of Life Insurance: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Survey," by B. Douglas Bernheim, Lorenzo Forni, Jagadeesh Gokhale, and Laurence J. Kotlikoff (Working Paper 9914, November 1999, .pdf format, 57p.).

>From the Abstract:

This study examines life insurance adequacy among married American couples approaching retirement based on the 1992 Health and Retirement Survey with matched Social Security earnings histories. It evaluates each household's life insurance needs based on new financial planning software that embodies a life-cycle-planning model and covers a broad array of demographic, economic, and financial characteristics. A sizable minority of households are significantly underinsured. Almost one third of wives and over 10 percent of husbands would have suffered living-standard reductions greater than 20 percent had their spouses died in 1992.
Under-insurance seems more common among low-income households, couples with asymmetric earnings, younger households, couples with dependent children, and non-whites. In general, households with greater vulnerabilities do not compensate adequately through greater life insurance holdings. Among some groups, the frequency of under-insurance exceeds two-thirds, and the frequency of severe under-insurance (a reduction in living standard of 40 percent or greater) exceeds

12. INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND: "Regulation of Withdrawals in Individual Account Systems," by Jan Walliser (WP/99/153, November 1999, .pdf format, 24p.). Note: Occasionally, there can be complications printing IMF .pdf formatted papers. If you have problems see:

for advice.

>From the Abstract:

Funded mandatory pension systems based on individual accounts are spreading around the world. With the maturation of these systems, regulating the withdrawal of retirement savings will become increasingly important. Government regulation of withdrawals should mandate the purchase of inflation-indexed life annities exceeding income available from government welfare programs, for the retiree and potential survivors. Proper functioning of insurance markets does not, however, require
annuitizing the entire account balance. Instead more flexibility for the choice of withdrawals could be permitted for any remaining funds, helping to tailor income streams to individual needs and living arrangements.

and click on "Full text in PDF format."


13. INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR APPLIED SYSTEMS ANALYSIS (IIASA): "Variances of Population Projections: Comparison of Two Approaches," by D. Bauer, G. Feichtinger, W. Lutz and W. Sanderson (IIASA Report IR-99-063, November 1999, .pdf and .ps formats, 17p.).

>From the Abstract:

There has been a recent upsurge of interest in probabilistic population projections. Two methods have been suggested in the literature for forecasting the inputs into those projections: (1) a random lines (RL) approach, and (2) a simple autoregressive approach (AR(1)). The purpose of this paper is to study analytically the differences produced by the two methods. We do this in the context of a model of variability in population growth rates. Two cases are considered: One where there is no population age structure and one where there is one. In both, we find that the variance using the AR(1) approach is initially smaller than that of the RL approach, but that over time the variance using the RL approach grows more rapidly leading to an instant of time when the variances are equal.

14. LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS FINANCIAL MARKETS GROUP: "Pension Fund Reform and European Financial Markets: A Reappraisal of Potential Effects in the Wake of EMU," by E. Philip Davis (FMG Special Paper sp0107, November 1998, .pdf and .ps formats, 56p.).

>From the Abstract:

Pension reform is widely seen as essential in order to defuse the difficulties EU governments would otherwise face in respect of their social security pension systems in a context of population ageing. Particularly when such reform involves funding of future pensions, it may have radical implications for European financial markets, entailing important changes in the demand for financial assets by the private sector and qualitative developments in capital markets and banking which may
impinge on banks' comparative advantages. It may thereby impact on some long-established features of EU financial markets, notably in respect of corporate finance and corporate governance. Meanwhile, the onset of EMU will strongly affect both the evolution of EU financial markets and funding; On balance, it will tend to lead the evolution of financial structures in the same direction as the effects of pension fund reform, in that both favour an increased role for securities markets and a lesser
role for traditional banking. EMU will also encourage funding in various ways in and of itself. It is suggested that the forces unleashed by EMU and pension funding may act to change the European financial landscape more radically than would be the case for each alone, in the direction of a securitised financial system characterised by Anglo-Saxon market-based corporate finance and governance practices and away from "relationship banking". A number of theoretical, empirical and policy issues are raised, notably in respect of corporate finance, financial regulation and monetary policy.

15. SEOUL NATIONAL UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS (KOREA): "Sectoral Shift and Labor Force Participation of Older Males in the United States, 1880-1940," by Chulhee Lee (Working Paper No. 25, December 1999, .pdf format, 25p.).

>From the Abstract:

A Traditional explanation for the fall in the labor force participation of older males in the era of industrialization is that it was in part produced by the decline in agriculture. A number of recent studies rejected this view based on the result that farmers were no less likely to retire than were nonfarmers. An examination of a longer period, however, shows that farmers were less likely to retire than were nonfarmers, as the conventional view suggests. Only the first decade of the twentieth
century, which the revisionist view drew evidence from, exhibits the opposite pattern. This peculiarity of the years between 1900 to 1910 is likely to have resulted from the unusually high appreciation of farm property during the same period that would have stimulated retirement of farmers. According to the counterfactual LFPR of older males that would have resulted had there been no decline in the relative size of agriculture since 1820, the decrease in the labor force employed in
farming accounts for about 20 percent of the fall in the LFPR of men 60 and older between 1880 and 1940.

16. WORKING PAPER CORRECTION: A table in "Elderly Living Arrangements Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, and Romania," by Susan De Vos and Gary Sandefur (University of Wisconsin Center for Demography and Ecology Working Paper No. 99-14 [see CAAR #12, December 9, 1999 announcement]) has been changed. Corrections have been made to Table 5 of the publication. Interested researchers are advised to download the corrected copy of the paper. The table can be found on P. 34 of the .pdf version.


IV. Journal Tables of Contents (check your library for availability)

17. _Journal of Marriage and the Family_ (Vol. 61, No. 4, November 1999). Note: This journal is available in full text in the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of of this database and of this issue.

18. CARL Uncover Journal Tables of Contents. Follow the instructions below to access tables of contents. CARL Uncover offers fee based document delivery for selected journals.

A. Point your browser to:

B. click on "Search Uncover"
C. click on "Search Uncover Now"
D. Type the Journal Name in the search box and click the radio button
"Journal Title Browse"
E. click on the journal name
F. click on "journal issues"
G. click on the issues identified below

_Joural of Applied Gerontology_ (Vol. 18, No. 4, December 1999). Note: This journal is available in full text in the EBSCO Host Academic Search Elite Database and the ProQuest Research Library. Check your library for the availability of either of these two databases and of this issue.

_Population Studies_ (Vol. 53, No. 3, November 1999).

V. Websites of Interest

19. INTERNET INFORMATION NOTES ADDITIONS: The Administration on Aging National Aging Information Center has added three sections to its Internet
Information Notes (discussed in CAAR #1) meta-site. They are:

Faith Based Services, Spirituality, and Aging


Funding Older Adult Services

Internet Information Notes

Jack Solock
Data Librarian--Center for Demography and Ecology
4470 Social Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Madison, WI 53706