Sociology 357: Methods of Sociological Inquiry
|Room 6112 Social Science
|Professor Jane Allyn Piliavin
||Office Hours: MW 2:45-5:00 and by appointment
|Phones: 262-4344(O), 513-5188(C)
|Office: 2444 Social Science
This is a basic course in how to do social science research and how to
evaluate the research of others. It assumes no background in research
methods or statistics. It provides a general overview of the ways sociologists
collect information about social phenomena with a special emphasis on
what can be done to yield information that is trustworthy and useful for
our theoretical understanding of social life. If you have had any other
research methods courses you will probably find this course to be too
elementary and should discuss alternatives with me.
There are several basic goals I hope to achieve in this course:
- to introduce you to the elements of research design
so that you will have a good foundation for future learning,
- to teach you how to read a research report with a
critical eye, so that you can know how trustworthy its information is,
- to convince you that research is not an esoteric or
arcane activity that can be performed only by slightly eccentric professors,
but rather a relatively straightforward, systematic set of procedures
by which you can get answers to questions you have,
- to teach you the limitations and problems of doing
research into human behavior and therefore the caution that is necessary
in drawing broad conclusions on the basis of any one study, and
- to show you that doing research can, indeed, even
be fun, in the same way that learning about the world was fun for you
before they spoiled it by making you do it in school.
There are two required texts for the basic course:
- S Schutt, R.K. Investigating the Social World. 2004. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press, 4th edition (paper). A basic text in how to do social research. Make sure it’s the 4th Edition. They are available quite reasonably on Amazon.com, both new and used.
- G Golden, M.P. The Research Experience. Itasca, Ill: F.E. Peacock, 1976. (paper) A collection of sociological research reports coupled with behind-the-scenes discussions of what really happened in the research. The articles are antiques; you will learn some 60's history as well. The book is no longer in print (some used copies may be available), so the assigned chapters are on electronic reserve in the social science reading room, each one under the name of the chapter author.
In addition, there are instructions for the exercises, and other illustrative
materials, which you must print out from my website. Some readings will be assigned
on reserve in the social science reading room and/or on electronic
reserve. These should all be indicated here, but there may be some
Requirements and Grading
Your grade is based principally on three data collection exercises :
a field observation (15%), a small questionnaire (20%), and an experiment
(20%), and on an article analysis (25%). Details on these four assignments
are givenon the website. The last 20% of your grade
is based on how much of the assigned homework you do (15%) and on your
comments on the lectures and readings (5%). Please purchase a package
of 3 X 5 index cards for the purpose of writing the comments.
The homework assignments are given in the syllabus. Homework will be
skimmed and counted but not graded. The goal of assigning homework is
that you will have done the assigned reading and thought about it before
you come to class. Thus, it must be clear from what you write that you
actually read the assigned material: vague comments that make no specific
reference to the reading are not acceptable. To receive credit, the homework
must be submitted at the beginning of class on the day it is due.
If you omit no more than two of the 15 assignments, you will receive an
A for the homework portion of your grade. If you do fewer than half of
the assignments, you will receive an F. Between these extremes, you will
receive a pro-rated grade. Late homework will be accepted for half credit
only when there is clear justification, and even then, only at the next
class meeting after the original due date. (Exceptions may be made for
catastrophes.) Absence from class is not a sufficient justification for
late homework; you may submit homework early in anticipation of an absence.
At the end of each Tuesday and Thursday class, I will collect "comment cards",
on which you may ask general questions, make comments, and ask for clarifications
regarding lectures and readings. I will read these and may use them to
structure later classes. I will not accept other sizes of cards or
strips of paper. Again, you will receive a grade based on how many
cards with comments you turn in. Just a card with your name on it will
not suffice; this is not just a sneaky way of taking attendance in lecture
(although it does give me some information about that). I strongly suggest
that you keep a journal of questions and comments as they occur to you
as you read and as you sit in class (perhaps in a small notebook or pad).
This can help you decide what to put on your comment cards; it can also
serve as a record for you of what you have and haven't figured out, if
you go back over it now and then.
I would like to stress that you can get an A for 20% of your grade
simply by doing mechanical things having to do with comments and homework.
This can make a big difference in your final grade.
There is a great deal of work to do in this course. The subject matter
requires an active rather than a passive stance toward learning. The way
to learn research methods is to read real research reports and get your
hands dirty doing real data collection. The homework is an integral part
of the class, for it is the vehicle for learning to read a research report.
All these activities take time and effort, but there are no shortcuts.
I hope you will find at least some of what you do to be fun; at least
you should not be able to complain that all you were asked to do was to
spit back what the professor said.
In order to insure that students are paying attention in class, cell phones must be turned off and no laptops are to be used, unless we are doing things with data.
Class sessions will involve a mixture of lectures and discussion. Some
classes will include discussion and workshop-type experiences. You
are responsible for obtaining information you miss if you are absent.
Please obtain the telephone numbers and e-mail addresses of several class
members so you can call or e-mail them if you miss class. I believe it
is inappropriate to use office hours (or telephone calls) to compensate
for instruction you missed more or less by choice. But if you are attending
regularly and making the effort to learn (or if your absence is for reasons
beyond your control), I will do all that I can to help you. Past students
have suggested that I stress that the absence of formal examinations on
the assigned reading does not mean that you don't need to do it. Some
report learning too late in the term that the assigned readings and our
discussions of them help you do a better job on the graded exercises and
When we are working on one of the exercises always bring the instructions
for it to class. Many students find that it works well to have a looseleaf
binder in which both the instructions and other notes may be kept. Or
get one of those spirals with big pockets for other materials. It is also
useful to bring Golden when readings have been assigned from it. I sometimes
get behind, so if I haven't covered a Golden reading, please continue
to bring the book to class until I do.
I have given you my home phone number, because I want you to feel free
to call me when you have questions. BUT PLEASE TRY TO REMEMBER THAT WHEN
YOU HAVE QUESTIONS IS WHEN OTHERS DO TOO -- WHEN PROJECTS ARE DUE. Try
to realize that I have another life and be considerate. For example, when
writing up an exercise, please work all the way through the exercise,
noting questions you have as you go. Then make ONE phone call to try to
get the answers, rather than making a new call every time you get stumped!
The exact pacing of topics from day to day will depend upon the flow
of the class. HOMEWORK AND PROJECT DUE DATES GIVEN IN THE SYLLABUS ARE
CORRECT, even if I do not remind you in class, unless a WRITTEN note on
the blackboard or an e-mail message alters them. You are expected to check
your e-mail; if you have not activated your account, please do so.
S refers to readings in the Schutt methods book. For example, S 7 refers
to all of chapter 7. S, pp 100-105 means pages 100-105 only. G refers
to readings in the Golden reader. The articles will be indicated
author's name, e.g. G: Humphreys. In Golden, always read both the research
report and the personal journal that follows it. There is a lot of
in the personal journals that will help you with your exercises; do
not neglect them. Some of them are even entertaining.
NOTE: A * BEFORE A DATE MEANS THERE IS SOMETHING DUE THAT DAY.
The readings are given class by class. You should have read the material
indicated or done the homework by the date shown. Deadlines for all assignments
are indicated on the schedule.
||Subjects, Readings, and Homework
|First Class. The usual introductory remarks. Introduction of Article
Analysis as the overall framework for the course. It is strongly
recommended that you have an approved article by July 1.
will be explained in class.
| T 14
Begin Systematic Observation and Field Research. Read S 9. Read excerpt on website on crack research and the selections from Bosk, Forgive and Remember, and Duneier, Sidewalk, on doing field work. Also read the instructions for the OBSERVATION EXERCISE (15% of your grade) and think about what you might want to observe. Today you will form two-person groups for the observation exercise. Decide with your partner on the setting you will use for your observation. Between now and Monday, June 20, do your unstructured observations.
| How to think like a social scientist; overview of research design. READ S 1; G 1. Discussion of propositions, concepts, variables, and operational definitions.
Read S 2 (all), 4 (pages 89-94 only).
HOMEWORK #1: Pick up a newspaper (any one will do). Develop
one or more propositions about some topic discussed in the paper.
State the concepts involved and try to operationalize them. Attach
the clipping of the article that is your "inspiration"
to your homework. This will form the basis for discussion in class.
HOMEWORK #2: Turn in
xerox copy of rough notes from unstructured observation. Bring the
original to class. You will need it for the WORKSHOP on interpreting
unstructured observations and developing a hypothesis and structured
observation design. You should now be ready to do your structured
|* T 21
Applying the basic concepts. Read G: Doob and Gross, "Status of Frustrator as
an Inhibitor of Horn-honking Responses," and "How I
- Give the major independent variable and dependent
variable in the Doob and Gross article; tell how each was measured
- State the major theoretical hypothesis of the
research and the operational hypothesis that flows from it.
- See if you can construct the logical framework
leading from the theory to the specific prediction. (Hint: This
involves the "frustration-aggression hypothesis," the
theoretical hypothesis, and the measurement assumptions, and it
is not obvious.)
- Be prepared to discuss the results of this research,
in terms of what it demonstrates (I never say "proves").
Ethics of Research. Matters of ethics come up
in all research but are especially acute in participant observation. Read Chapter 3 from Schutt 6th Edition, pp 66-88.
Also, go to the following website and take the tutorial:
Turn in the page that shows that you did it.
Read G: Humphreys "Tearoom
Trade" and "Methods".
- Discuss the methods of observation used by
Humphreys. Would you call this participant or non-participant
observation? Overt or covert?
- What methods in addition to observation did
he use in this article?
- Briefly give your opinion of the ethics of
the research reported in Humphreys' article. We will hold a debate
|* R 23
Analyzing Observational Data. Read S 14, writing a research report
(pp. 436-442); S 10, (pp. 346-380, skimming section on variance)
of observation exercise with emphasis
on how you write up a research report and how you prepare a statistical
table to summarize your results. You should have your structured
data collection completed and your data with you. WORKSHOP on data
analysis and writeup of observation exercise.
Lab sessions for hands on work with SPSS.
In Microlab, 3218 Social Science Building. By today your observation report should be written up to the section on results. You should have your data collection completed and your data with you.
|* T 28
Begin surveys and index construction. Read S 3 ( pp. 73-91). Chapter
8, Surveys (all). Start thinking about a topic for the questionnaire.
I will lecture on particular types of question format. QUESTIONNAIRE
Read Newman questionnaire (see workbook packet)
as a NEGATIVE example: how NOT to write questions. This fake
questionnaire was devised as a teaching tool to illustrate
common mistakes made in writing questions. Pick out your two
lousy questions; I will discuss what makes a bad question.
I will also give hints on writing good questions. Form groups
exercise; begin to write questions to be completed over
the weekend and turned in on Tuesday, July 5 at class
G: Schuman, "Two
sources of antiwar sentiment in America", and the personal
HOMEWORK #5: What do you see as the strengths and weaknesses
of open-ended questions? When would they be better than structured
questions? Would there be some groups of people you wouldn't want
to use them with? Identify the major variables; summarize the sampling
Clarifications of what is wanted in the Questionnaire
OBSERVATION EXERCISE is due Friday, July 1.
*T July 5
Read S, Chapter 4, Sampling. I will lecture on sampling.
HOMEWORK #6: Drafts of questions due at class time. Make sure all questions from your
group are handed in together, even if you wrote them separately.
Read G: Ransford, "Isolation,
Powerlessness, and Violence," and the personal journal.
HOMEWORK #7: Identify the major variables and how they were
operationalized -- that is, what questions were used to get at the
ideas he was interested in; add any comments you have about the subject
matter or process of his research. I will discuss this article in
Read "External Validity" section of Article Analysis in
preparation for homework described below. We will discuss it in class
today.HOMEWORK #8: Apply article analysis section
B: External Validity to the Ransford, the Humphreys, the
Doob and Gross article, or your own approved article. If you
do an analysis of your own article, I will give you feedback on
it, which should help you to do a better job on your final article
analysis. (You need to keep one copy of your article and turn one
in, with your name on it, with the analysis, WHICH MUST BE TYPED.
A reader willl give you feedback and return your analysis, but
article.) See example article analysis here .
Clarifications of what is wanted in the Questionnaire Exercise. Your question drafts returned with comments. Some time at end
of class will be left for groups to consult on these corrections.
After you correct them, your questionnaire should be ready for
the field, and you should begin collecting data. At least half
of the data should be collected by next Monday, July 11.
Workshop on rostering of data and open-end coding. AT LEAST
HALF OF YOUR DATA SHOULD BE COLLECTED BY NOW. BRING ALL DATA YOU
Lab sessions for data entry and initial analysis of questionnaire
data. You should have all of your data collected by now.
Read S 3, (pp.113-122). The idea of construct validity. Read G:
Rubin "Measurement of Romantic Love" and
- Explain in your own words the relation between
what Rubin is doing and the ideas of validity explained in your
- List three findings in his article that support
the claim that his measure of "love" is valid.
- Comment very briefly on your feelings about
this approach to measuring love.
| R 14
Read Section C: Construct Validity of Measures of Variables in
Article Analysis. I will discuss this section in class.
HOMEWORK #10: Apply Section
C of the Article Analysis to either the Doob and Gross, the
Ransford or your own article. Again, if you use your
own article, you will receive comments on it. Discussion of this section of
the article analysis as it relates not only
also to the questionnaire exercise.
HOMEWORK #11>>> SUBMIT COPIES OF YOUR DATA SHEETS
AND CODE BOOKS AND A CD or flash drive CONTAINING
YOUR SPSS data file, syntax file, and output file with your frequency
4:30 P.M. Friday in my office or mailbox.
* M 18
Reread S 10 (pp. 367-399) Carefully read the example of a student
project in the Questionnaire
I will hand out computer output that corresponds
to the example, and I will discuss it. Meet with your groups on
last minute work and with me on questions about your data sheets
|* T 19
Read S, Chapter 5, Causation and research design. Computer
analysis of questionnaire data returned. WORKSHOP on
interpreting and reporting results. I will be available Tuesday
afternoon, in addition to regular office hours, for consultation.
If you want
reanalyses, you must request them by Thursday afternoon.
you should have written a draft of the questionnaire
exercise up to where the data analysis section begins, to save
yourself time later.
| W 20
Read Experiment Exercise. Begin discussing experimental design. Read S 7, Experiments (pp. 194-203); G
: Darley and Batson, "From Jerusalem to Jericho" and
the personal journal. Ignore the material on measures of religiosity
- Identify the independent and dependent variables
and tell how each was measured;
- Summarize the key findings. Focus on finding
the relevant numbers, not just the words.
- What procedures were used to ensure internal
validity of the findings, in terms of the logic of experiments?
(Note: Although it does not say so explicitly, this is a randomized
experiment.) Be prepared to discuss anything else that seems
relevant. Start thinking about an experiment.
|* R 21
Continue discussion of experiments, causation. Bring your ideas
for experiments to class. There will be an experimental design workshop. You should then begin collecting data.
Lecture and discussion on internal validity: How can you support
a judgment that A is a cause of B? (As contrasted with B causing
or other possibilities.) Campbell & Stanley pre-, true,
and quasi - experimental
Read S 6 (pp. 203-217); Stern, Chapter 3
QUESTIONNAIRE EXERCISE DUE today,
at CLASS TIME.
Read Article Exercise Section
D: Internal Validity; S, Appendix D, How to read a research
article. Read article "Divorce among
sociologists married to sociologists" and the student analysis
of it in the Workbook. (The analysis precedes the article.) We do not have time for me to give you feedback on this section.
Read G: Goldberg, "Misogyny
and the College Girl," and the personal journal.
- Identify the independent and dependent
variables and tell how each was measured,
- Summarize the key findings, again focusing
on finding the relevant numbers.
- What procedures were used to ensure internal
validity in this research? How is the design of this experiment
different from that of the Darley and Batson study?
You should have a draft of the entire experiment report
written up to the data analysis by now, and have half or more
of your data collected. Data analysis and report write-up WORKSHOP today.
Labs on analyzing experimental data. You know how to roster data by now. But we can
go over appropriate statistical techniques for your data.
*M Aug 1
Field experiments have more external validity but more complex
internal validity problems. Read G:
Goldstein and Arms, "Effects of Observing Athletic
Contests on Hostility," and the personal journal.
HOMEWORK #14: Identify the independent and dependent variables
and tell what procedures were used to insure internal validity.
EXPERIMENT EXERCISE DUE today,
at class time.
Read S 11, 380-388;
read Babbie chapter,"The
Discussion of internal validity in connection with elaboration model.
Questions about anything. Discussion of the elaboration model, third-variable analysis, and internal-external validity issues as they relate to your article analysis.
| W 3
Further discussion of elaboration
model; some discussion of
regression. Questions about article analysis. Course evaluation.
END OF SEMESTER PARTY AND MINI-CONVENTION. Experiments returned.
Reports on what you found in your experiments. Discussion of final
grade based on computer projections. Attendance is required today.
I will bring refreshments and I urge you to do the same.
I will have extended office hours the week of August 1 for
questions concerning your article analyses.
ARTICLE ANALYSIS DUE Friday,
If you need an extension on this time, I will be happy to negotiate it,
but understand that it might lead to your getting an incomplete temporarily.
Questions? Comments? Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org